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A &P 1

Human Anatomy and Physiology

What are cells? living structural and functional units enclosed by a membrane
what are the 3 main parts to a cell? 1. Plasma Membrane, 2. Cytoplasm, 3. Nucleus
What is cell division? Where one cell divides into two identical cells
Anything ending in "OMA" means Tumor of
The phases of Mitosis are: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
"Verrucae"is: A wart. If it's on the foot, it is called "Plantaris". If it's on the hand, it is called "Palmaris".
Mitochondria is what? Power house of the cell.
tRNA (Transfer RNA) Binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein during translation. One end of the tRNA carries a specific amino acid, and the opposite end consists of a triplet of nucleotides called an anticodon.
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) Joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
mRNA (Messenger RNA) Directs the synthesis of a protein
Organelles Specialized structures with the cell that have characteristic shapes; they perform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
Mitosis The distribution of two sets of chromosomes into two separate nuclei. The process results in the exact partitioning of genetic information.
Carsinoma Malignant tumors that arise from epithelial cells.
Translation The nucleotide sequence in an mRNA molecule specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein. Ribosomes in the cytoplasm carry out translation.
Transcription Copy information into a complementary sequence of codons.
Endocytosis The cell will invaginate and take in what is trying to get in
Exocytosis A substance trying to get out of a cell
Transcytosis When something travel across the cell
Ligand to tie
Phagocyte White blood cell
Red blood cell No nucleus
Kinase Phosphorylation
Amphipathic molecules that have both polar and non-polar parts
Genes Hereditary units that control most aspects of cellular structure and function
plasma membrane A flexible yet sturdy barrier that surrounds and contains the cytoplasm of a cell.
Lipid bilayer two back-to-back layers made up of three types of lipid molecules: phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids.
Phospholipids Contain phosphorus and take up 75% of the membrane lipids
Cholesterol a steroid with an attached -OH (hydroxyl) group
Glycolipids lipids with attached carbohydrate groups
Integral proteins Extend into or through the lipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails and are firmly embedded in it
Transmembrane proteins Span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and Extracellular fluid
Peripheral proteins They are not firmly embedded into the membrane. they associate more loosely with the polar heads of membrane lipids.
Glycoproteins Proteins with carbohydrate groups attached to the ends that protrude into the extracellular fluid.
Osteoma cancer of a bone
Apotosis dropping of something
Telomeres tips of chromosomes
Gliaoma Cancer of the brain
Astrocytoma's Tumor of the brain
Geneome total number of genes in your body (approx. 30K)
Proteome Total number of proteins in your body (approx. 1 million)
codon 3 (triplets)
Osmosis A type of diffusion in which there is net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane
Lysosome functions Fuses with and digests contents of endosomes, pinocytic vesicles, and phagosomes. Transports final products of digestion into cytosol; digests worn-out organelles, entire cells, and extracellular materials.
Golgi Apparatus (complex) Consists of 3-20 flattened membranous sacs called cisternae; structurally and functionally divided into entry face, medial cisternae, and exit face
Pharmacology science that deals with the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease
Osteogenic Sarcoma The most frequent type of childhood cancer, destroys the bone tissue
Metastasis The spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body
Mutations Permanent changes in the DNA base sequence of a gene
Oncology The study of tumors
Autolysis responsible for tissue deterioration after death
Mythymine AUG. Always the first one in Amino Acids
Ligand A specific molecule that binds to a receptor
Electrochemical gradient The combined influence of the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient on movement of a particular ion
Histones eight yellow protein balls together. help organize the coiling and folding of DNA
A, B, C, D Asymetrical, Border irregulary, coloration, diatmeter
Apotosis an orderly, genetically programmed death
Telomeres DNA sequence found only at the tips of each chromosome
Nucleosome Made up of DNA
Nuclei Made up of DNA, RNA, and proteins
Werner Syndrome A rare, inherited disease that causes a rapid acceleration of aging, usually while a person is in their 20's. Symptoms are wrinkling of the skin, graying of the hair and baldness, cataracts, and muscular atrophy. Most afflicted people die before 50.
Progeria A disease characterized by normal development in the first year of life followed by rapid aging. It is cause by a genetic defect in which telomers are considerably shorter than normal. Symptoms include dry/wrinkled skin, baldness. dies around age 13.
Tumor Markers A substance introduced into circulation by tumor cells that indicates the presence of a tumor, as well as the specific type.
Metaplasia The transformation of one type of cell into another
Hypertrophy Increase in the size of cells without cell division
Hyperplasia Increase in the number of cells of a tissue due to an increase in the frequency of cell division
Dysplasia Alteration in the size, shape, and organization of cells due to chronic irritation or inflammation; may progress to neoplasia or revert to normal if the irritation is removed
Atrophy A decrease in the size of cells, with a subsequent decrease in the size of the affected tissue or organ; wasting away.
Anaplasia The loss of tissue differentation and function that is characteristic of most malignancies.
Epidemiology The science that deals with why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in a human community
Oncogenes when inappropriately activated, it has the ability to transform a normal cell into a cancerous cell.
Carcinogen A chemical agent or radiation that produces cancer
Osteoma Cancer of a bone
Benign Tumor A neoplasm that does not metastasize
Lymphoma A malignant disease of lymphatic tissue
Leukemia Cancer of blood-forming organs characterized by rapid growth of abnormal leukocytes (white blood cells)
Sarcoma A general term for any cancer arising from muscle cells or connective tissue
Melanomas Cancerous growths of melanocytes, skin epithelial cells that produce the pigment melanin.
Membrane potential when a difference in electrical charges between two regions constitutes an electrical gradient, occurring across the plasma membrane.
Created by: mokessie