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Bio12nervoussystemAC

QuestionAnswer
ACh A neurotransmitter found in neurons that carries information across the synaptic cleft
AchE An enzyme that breaks down unused acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft
Action Potential A short-term change in the electrical potential on the surface of a cell in response to stimulation
Adrenal Medulla The inner portion of the adrenal glands that synthesizes, stores, and releases epinephrine and norepinephrine
Adrenalin Hormone secreted in fight or flight circumstances by the sympathetic nervous system
All or none response . . .
Autonomic nervous system Neurons that are not under conscious control comprosed of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
axomembrane Cell membrane of a neuron
axon A long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells
axoplasm The cytoplasm of a neuron
central nervous system The brain, cranial nerves and spinal cord
cerebellum Concerned primarily with somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone and the maintenance of balance
cerebrum The portion of the brain (frontal lobes) where thought and higher function reside
corpus callosum Connection between the two cerebral hemispheres comprised of nerve fibers
dendrite One of the extensions of the cytoplasm of a neuron taking impulses to the cell body
depolarization A reduction in the difference of electrical potential that exists across the plasma membrane of a nerve or muscle cell.
effector A structure that responds to a neural stimulus
excitatory A synapse in which the nerve impulse in a presynaptic cell tend to increase the probability of the postsynaptic cell to fire an action potential
neurotransmitter Chemical messenger of the nervous system
hypothalmus A portion of the brain which lies beneath the thalamus and secretes substances which control metabolism by exerting an influence on pituitary gland function
impulse The movement of action potential along a nerve fiber in response to a stimulus
inhibitory neurotransmitter A neurotransmitter that acts to prevent a neuron from firing an action potential
interneuron Neuron of the central nervous system that relays impulses between sensory neuron and motor neuron
medulla oblongata Subdivision of the brainstem; houses important cardiac and respiratory regulatory centres
meninges The three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
motor neuron Neurons which activate muscle cells. These neurons transmits messages from the brain through the spinal cord.
myelin sheath An insulating layer surrounding neurons, that dramatically increases the speed of conduction
Created by: Av3ry