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Medical Terms

Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
Homeostasis A state of equilibrium that is maintained within the body's internal environment
Atom The smallest, most basic chemical unit of an element
Proton A positively charged particle
Neutron Without any electrical charge
Electron A negatively charged particle that revolves around the nucleus of an atom
Chemical Elements Made up of atoms, which can be classified on the basis of their atomic number into groups called elements
Element A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into any other substance
Molecule A chemical combination of 2 or more atoms that form a specific chemical compound
Water Is a tasteless, clear, odorless liquid that makes up 65% of a male's body weight and 55% of a female's body weight
Cells Considered basic building blocks for the various structures that together make up a human being
Cell Membrane The outer covering of the cell
Cytoplasm The substance between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane. Is a jellylike material that is mostly water.
Nucleus Responsible for the cell's metabolism, growth, and reproduction
Chromosomes The central portion of the cell. Microscopic bodies that carry the genes that determine hereditary characteristics
Genome The complete set of genes and chromosomes tucked inside each of the body's trillions of cells
Stem Cells The precursors of all body cells
Regenerative/Reparative Medicine Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical card blood and bone marrow. Used in medical therapies.
Tissue A grouping of similar cells that together perform specialized functions
Epithelial Tissue Appears sheetlike arrangements of cells, sometimes several layers thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities and the principal tubes and passageways leading to the exterior.
Connective tissue The most widespread and abundant of the body tissues. Forms the supporting network for the organs of the body, sheaths the muscles, and connects muscles to bones and bones to joints.
Skeletal Muscle Voluntary muscle. Striated in appearance and is anchored by tendons to bone
Smooth Muscle Involuntary muscle. Found within the wall of organs and structures
Cardiac Muscle Involuntary muscle. A specialized for of striate tissue found only in the heart
Nerve Tissue Consists of nerve cells and supporting cells. Also known as neuroglia.
Organs Multiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function make up structures
System A group of different organs functioning together for a common purpose
Direction Describe the location of organs or body parts in relationship to one another
Sagittal Plane Vertically divides the body or structure into right and left sides
Midsagittal Plane Divides the body or structure into right and left halves
Transverse/Horizontal Plane Any plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal/Frontal Plane Any plane that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane. Also divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions
Cavity A hollow space containing body organs
Thoracic Cavity The area of the chest containing the heart and the lungs. Other organs are the esophagus, trachea, thymus, and certain large blood and lymph vessels.
Pericardial Cavity The space containing the heart
Pleural Cavity The spaces containing the lungs
Abdominal Cavity The space below the diaphragm. Commonly known as the belly. Contains the stomach, intestines, and other organs of digestion.
Pelvic Cavity The space formed by the bones or the pelvic area. Contains the organs of reproduction and elimination.
Cranial Cavity The space containing the brain
Spinal Cavity The space within the bony spinal column that contains the spinal cord and spinal fluid.
Abdominopelvic Cavity The combination of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Also divided into 9 regions.
Right Hypochondriac Upper right region at the level of the 9th rib cartilage
Left Hypochondriac Upper left region at the level of the 9th rib cartilage
Epigastic Region over the stomach
Right Lumbar Right middle lateral region
Left Lumbar Left middle lateral region
Umbilical In the center, between the right and left lumbar regions; at the navel
Right Iliac Right lower lateral region
Left Iliac Left lower lateral region
Hypogastric Lower middle region below the navel
Abdomen Divided into 4 corresponding regions that are used for descriptive and diagnostic purposes.
Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Contains the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Contains the left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, part of the small and large intestines
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Contains part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter.
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Contains part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter
Trunk AKA Torso; is an anatomical term for the central part of the human body. Includes the thorax (chest) and abdomen.
Created by: Dark2011