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spada reading PSSA

PSSA terms and definitons

Connections text to self, text to world, text to text the reader can connect or relate what he has read to something else.
evaluate to examine and judge; to say if something is good or bad-if you like it or you don't
inference reading between the lines. taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption.
prediction making an educated guess to what will happen next.
visualize the ability to "see" what you're reading
compare and contrast compare means to show similarities and contrast means to show differences
expository text text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic
fact vs. opinion fact is something that can be proven to be true, and opinion is someone else's point of view
generalizations when you make assumptions about different events and/or charters and apply them to new situations
graphic organizer an organizational picture, such as Venn diagram or webbing, that helps the learner identify the important elements.
nonfiction writing that is true and the purpose is to inform. nonfiction communicates knowledge about real people, events, and/or situation.
paraphrase restate in your own words. a paraphrase is a retelling of the reading selection that includes more than just the main idea
sequential order order in which the events in the story and presented to the reader
summary a concise explanation of reading selection. a summary contains only the main idea.
supporting details details that support or back up the main idea of the passage.
alliteration the repetition of begging consonant sounds in words in a sentence. examples: sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy
figure language language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect
hyperbole an exaggerated statement used to make a strong effect EX: my dog is so ugly, we have to pay people to pet him
imagery words and phrases used specifically to help the reader to imagine each of the senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing, and taste
Metaphor a comparison between two unlike things without using the words like or as. EX: Joe is a lion on the playing field
onomatopoeia words whose sounds express their meaning. EX: buzz, crath, whirr, clang, hiss
oxymoron putting two contradictory words together. EX: Jumbo Shrimp, plastic glasses, terribly pleased
personification giving life like characteristics to inanimate objects. EX: the planets danced in their orbits
Simile a comparison between two unlike things by using the words like or as. EX: The thunder sounded like a roaring canon
Symbol an image, object, character, or action that stands out beyond its literal meaning
conflict struggle between opposing forces in literature
Characterization the method the author uses to communicate info. about the characters. Methods include (1) Charters appearance (2) Charters Actions (3) characters thoughts (4) charters conversation and (5) reactions of others toward the character.
character vs.character a conflict between character such as family conflict, trouble with a bully or difficulties in romance. this type of conflict in external
character vs nature a conflict between a character and a force in nature such as a tornado, avalanche, ext extreme weather conditions or any type of natural disaster. this type of conflict is external
Character vs self an eternal conflict that takes place in a character's mind. For or example, a character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem. Sometimes, a character must deal with his or her mixed feelings or emotions.
climax the moment when the action of the story comes to its highest. this usually occurs at the end of the story just before the resolution.
Exposition the background info. that the author provides about the setting, plot, character or other essential story elements
falling action the part of the story following the climax where there is a sharp decline in dramatic tension, this occurs just before the resolution
fiction any story that is the product of imagination rather than fact.
plot the events that occur in the story beginning with the resolution.
resolution occurs at the end of a story and includes the story's action after the climax.
rising action the part of the story, including the exposition, which builds to the climax.
Antagonist main character in opposition to the protagonist; sometimes not a person but an obstacle such as a force of nature, society or inner conflict.
Protagonist the central character in a story that is "the good guy," or the one with whom the reader identifies.
dialogue the actual words/conversation that the character says to another character.
narrator the speaker of the story.
Point of view perspective from which the story is being told. the main points of view are first person, third person limited and third person omniscient.
limited point of view the story is told from the view-point of a character;as a result the reader is only exposed to what that character experiences. first person point of view is always limited and third person point of view can either be limited or omniscient.
omniscient point of view "all knowing," instead of being a character in the story, the narrator is outside the story so the thoughts of all of the characters are presented
Antonym a word that is the opposite of another word
context clues info. within the reading selection that helps the reading selection that helps the reader figure out the meaning of challenging words
homophone or homonym two or more words that are pronounced alike but have different meanings ex: too, to, two
prefix letters added to the beginning of a word to challenge its meaning
root word a word to which prefixes and suffixes are added
suffix letters placed at the end of a word to challenge its meaning
synonym two or more words that have highly similar meanings
authors purpose the authors reason or intention for writing the selection. always ask yourself-is the purpose to entertain, to inform, or to persuade? skim the selection and attempt to determine the authors purpose before you read the selection
autobiography the story of a persons life written by the person
biography the story of a persons life written by another person
conclusion the end of a reading selection
fable a narrative intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader
genre categories of literature such as biography, mystery, historical, sports and romance
flashback technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an indecent of an earlier time; flashback is often used to provide additional info. to the reader
foreshadowing technique in which the author provides the reader with clues about events that will happen later in the story
irony a difference between what is expected and what actually happens 2 types are dramatic irony and verbal irony
verbal irony a contradiction between what is said and what is meant
dramatic irony occurs when there is a contradiction between what might be excepted and what actually occurs
situational irony occurs when there is a contradiction between what the character thinks and what the reader knows to be true
mood the overall feeling created by the authors words
setting the environment of the time and place where the action in the story occurs
theme the underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to covey or communicate to the reader. theme may be thought of as the lesson or moral of the story
tone the clues of the story that suggest the witters own attitude trowed elements in the story
voice the authors style the quality that makes his or her writing unique
Created by: jshacklet



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