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PSSA Reading. Spada.

PSSA Vocab. Terms And Definitons (For Reading)

Connections text to self; world; or text. the reader can connect or relate what he has read to something else.
Evaluate to examine and judge; to say if something is good or bad-if you like it or you don't.
Inference reading between the lines. taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption.
Prediction making an educated guess as to what will happen next.
Visualize the ability to "see" what you are reading.
Compare and contrast compare means to show similarties and contrast means to show differences.
Expository text text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic.
Fact vs. opinion fast is it something that can be proven to be true, and opinion is it just someone else's point of view
Generalizations when you make assumptions about different events and/or characters and apply them to new situations
Graphic organizer an organizational picture, such as Venn diagram or webbing, that helps the learner identify the important elements.
Nonfiction writing that is true and the purpose is to inform. nonfiction communicates knowledge about events and real people, events and/or situations.
paraphrase restate in your own words. a paraphrase is a retelling of the reading selections that includes more than just the main ideas.
sequential order order in which the events in the story are presented to the reader.
summary a concise (short yet detailed) explanation of a reading selection. a summary contains only the main ideas.
supporting details details that support or back up the main idea of the passage.
supporting details details that support or back up the main idea of the passage.
alliteration the repitition of beginning consonant sounds in words in a sentence. exampl;es; sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger the better, jump for joy.
figurative language language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect
hyperbole an exaggerated statement used to make a strong effect. example; my dog is so ugly, we have to pay people to pet him.
imagery words and phrases used specifically to help the reader imagine each of the sences; smell, touch, sight, hearing, and taste
metaphor a comparison between two unlike things without using the words like or as
onomatopoeia words whose sounds express their meaning, ezamples; buzz, crash, whirr, clang, hiss, purr, squeak, mumble, hush, boom.
oxymoron putting two contradictory words together, example; jumbo shrinp, plastic glasses, terribly please, pretty ugly.
personification giving lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects. example;the planets DANCED in their orbits, the tree SHIVERED in the wind.
simile a comparison between two unlike things by using the words like or as. example;the thunder sounded like a roaring cannon.
symbol an image, object, character, or action that stands for an idea beyond its literal meaning,
conflict stuggle between opposing forces in literature.
characterization the method an author uses to communicate information about the characters. methods include; character's appearance, character's actions, character's thoughts, character's conversations, and reactions of others. toward the character.
character vs. character a conflict between characters such as family conflict, trouble, with a bully of diffictulies in romance. this type is conflict in external
character vs. nature aconflict between a character and a force in nature usch as a tornado, acalanche, extreme weather conditions, or any type of natural disaster. this type of conditions is external.
character vs. self an internal conflict that takes place in a character's mind, for example,a character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem. sometimes, a character must deal with his or her mixed feelings or emotions.
climax the moment when the action of the story comes to its highest point. this usally occurs at the end of the story just before the resolution.
exposition the background information that the author provides about the setting, plot, character or other essential story elements.
falling action the part of the story following the climax where there is a sharp decline in dramatic tension; this occurs just before the resolution.
fiction any story that is the product of imagination rather than fact
plot the events that occurs in the story beginning with the seting and ending with the resolution
resolution occurs at the end of the story and includes the story's action after the climax
rising action the part of the story, including the exposition, which builds to the climax
antagonist main character in poopsition to the protagonist; sometimes not a person but an obstacle such as a force of nature, society or inner conflict
protagonist the central character ini a story that is the "good guy" or the one with whom the reader identifies
dialogue the actual words/conversation that the character says to another character
narrater the speaker of the story
point of view perspective from which the story is being told. the main points of view are first person, third person limited and third person omniscient
limited point of view the story is told from the view-point of a character; as a result the reader is only exposed to what the character experiences. first person point of view is always limited and third person point of view can either be limited or omniscient
omniscient point of view "all knowing" instead of being a character in the story, the narrator is outside the story so the thoughts of all of the characters are present
antonym a word that is the opposite of another word
context clues information within the reading selection that helps the reader figure out the meanings of challenging words
homophone or homonym two or more words that are pronounced alike but have diferent meanings. ex; too, to, two
prefix letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning
root word a word to which prefixes and suffixes are added.
suffix letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning
synonym two or more words that have highly similar meanings
author's purpose the author's reason or intention for writing the selection. always ask yourself- is the purpose to entertain, to inform or to persuade? skin the selection and attempt to determine the author's purpose before you read the selection
autobiography the story of a person's life written by the person
biography the story of a person's life written by another person
conclusion the end of the reading selection
fable a narrative intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader
genre categories of literature such as biography, myster, historical, sports, and romance
flashback technique in which the author interrupst the plot of the story to recreate an incident of an earlier time; flackback is often used to provide additional info to the reader
foreshadowing technique in which the author provides the reader with clues about events that will happen later in the story
irony a difference between what is ex[pected and what actually happens;2 types are dramatic iron, and situation irony
dramatic irony occurs whne an event is the direct opposite of what the reader and characters thought would happen
situational irony occurs when there is a contradiction between what the characters thinks and what the reader knows to be true
mood the overall feeling created by the author's words
setting the environment of time and place where the action of the story occurs
theme the underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to convey or communicate to the reader. theme may be thought of as the lesson or moral of the story.
tone the clues of the story that suggest the writer's own attitude toward elements in the story
voice the author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique
Created by: 2015rutmara



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