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PSSA Reading. Spada.

PSSA Vocab. Terms And Defintions (For Reading)

Connections text to self; world; or text. The reader can connect or relale what he has read to something else
Evaluate to examine and judge; to say if someting is good or bad - if you like it or you dont.
Prediction making an educated guess as to what night happen
Inference reading bbetween the lines. Taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption
Visualize the ability to "see" what you are reading
Compare and Contrast compare means to show similarities and contrast means to show differences
Expository text text written to explain and convey informatoin about sepcific texts
Fact vs. opinion fact is something that can be proven to be true, and opinion is just somones point of view
Generalization when you make assumptions about different events and characters and apply them to new situations
Graphic organizers an organizational picture, such as Venn diagram of webbing, that helps the learner identify the important elements
nonfiction writing that is true and the purpose is to inform. Nonfitcion communities knowledge about events and real people, events and situation
paraphrase restate in your own words. A paragraph is a retelling os the reading selection that includs more than just the main ideas
sequential order order in which the events in the story are presented to the reader
summary a concise (short yet detailed)explanation of a readign selection. A summary contains only the main ideas.
supporting details details the support or back up the main ideas of the passage
alliteration the repetition of beginning consontant sound in words in a sentence. Examples: sweet smell of success, a dim ea dozen, bigger the better, jump for joy
Figuratice language language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect
hyperbole an exaggerated statement used to make a strong effect. Expample: My dog is so ugly, we have to pay people to pet him
imagery words and phrases used to specifically to help the reader to imagine each of the senses: smell, touch, site, hear, and taste
metaphore a comparison between two unlike unlike things without using the words like or as
onomatopeia words whose sounds express their meaning. Example: "buzz", "crash", "Whirr", "clang", "hiss", "Purr", and others
personificication giving lifelike characters to inaimate objects. Example: The planets DANCED in their orbits. The tree SHIVERED inthe wind.
similie a comparaison between two unlike things by using the words like or as. Expample: The thinder sounded liek a roaring cannon
symbol an image, object, character, or action that stand for an idea beyond its literal meaning.
conflict struggle between opposing forces in literature
characterization the method an author used to communicate information anout the characters. Methods include: (1) characters appearence (2) characters action (3) characters thoughts (4) characters conversation (5) reactioms of others toward the character.
characters vs, character a conflict between charcters such as family conflict trouble with a bully or difficulties in romance. This type of conflict is External
characters vs. nature a conflict that takes okace in a characters mind. For example, a charcter may have to decide between right and wrong oe between two solutions to a problem,. Sometimes, a character must deal with his/her mixed feelings or emotions.
climax the moment when the action of the story comes to the hightest point. This usually occurs at the end of the story just before the resoulution
exposition the background information that the author privides about the setting, plot, character or otyher essential story elements
falling action the part of the story following the climax where there is a shap declince in dramatic tension; this occurs just before the resolution
fiction any story that is the product of imaginiation rather than fact
plot the events occur in the story beginning with the setting and ending with the resoultion
Resolution occurs at the eng of a story and includs the storys action
rising action the part of the story, includs the expostion, which builds to the climax
antagonist main character in opposition to to the protagonist; sometimes not a person but an obstacle such as a force or nature, society or inner conflict
protagonist the centralcharacter in a story that is the "good guy," or the one with whom the reader identifies
dialogue the actual; wods/converstaion that t he chacter says to another character
narrator the speaker of the story
point of view perspective from which the story is being told. The main point of view are first person, third person limited and third person omnisicient
limited point of view the story is told from the view point of a charcter; as a r4esult the reader is only exposed to what that character experience. First person point of view is always limited and third person peoint of view can either be limited or omnisicient
omnisicient point of view "all knowing;" instead of being a charcter inthe story,the narrator is outside the story so the thoughts of all the charcters are presented
antonym a word that is the opposite of another word
context clues inormation within the reading selection that helps the reader figure out the meaning of challenging words.
homophone or homonym two or more words that are pronounced alike but have different meanings. Example: too, to, two
preix letters added to the beginning a word to change its meaning
root word a word to which pre fixes and suffixes are added
suffix letters placed at the end of a word to change its meaning
synonym two or more that have highly similar meanings
authors purpose the authors reason or intention for writing the selection. Always ask yourself - is the purose to Entertain, to Inform, or to Persuade? Skim the selection and attempt to determine he authors purpose Before you read the selection
autobiography a story of a persons life written by the person
biography the story of a persons lie written by another person
conclusion the end od the reading selection
fable a narrative intendedto convey a moral or lesson to the reader
genre categories of literature such as biography, mystery,historical, sports, and romance
flashback technique in which the author interrupts the plot o the story to recreate an incident o an earlier time; flashback is often used to provide additionls information to the reader
foreshadowing technique in which the author provides the reader with clues about events that will happen later in the story
irony a difference between wht is expected and what actually happens; 2 types are dramatic irony, and situationl irony
verbal irony a contradiction between what is said and what is meant
dramatic irony occurs when there us a contradiction between what might be expected and what actually occurs
situational irony occurs when there is contradiction between what the character thinks and what the reader knows to be true
mood the overall feeling created by the authores words
setting the environment of time and place where the action of story occurs
theme the underlying message of the selection tht the author is trying to convey or communicate to the reader. There may be thought of as the lesson or moral o the story
tone the clues of the story that suggest the writers own attitude towards elements in the story
voice the authors style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique
Created by: 2015AdaEsmE


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