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PSSA-Reading

Terms & Definitions

Definition Term
Text to self;world;or text. The reader can connect or relate what he has read to something else. Connections
To examine and judge;to say if something is good or bad-if you like it or you don't. Evaluate
Reading betweeen the lines. Taking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumption. Inference
Making and educated guess as to what will happen next. Prediction
The ability to "see" what you are reading. Visualize
To show similarities. Compare
To show differences. Contrast
Text written to explain and convey information about a specific topic. Expository Text
Something that can be proven to be true. Fact
Someone else's point of view. Opinion
When you make assumptions about different events and/or characters and apply them to new situations. Generalizations
An organizational picture, such as a venn diagram or webbing, that helps the learner identify the important elements. Graphic Organizer
Writing that is true and the purpose is to inform, communicates knowledge about events and real people, events and/or situations. Nonfiction
Order in which the events in the story are presented to the reader. Sequential Order
A concise (short yet detailed) explanation of a reading selection.It contains only the main ideas. Summary
Details that support or back up the main idea of the passage. Supporting Details
The repetition of beginning consonant sounds in words in a sentence. Examples: sweet smell of success, a dime a dozen, bigger and better, jump for joy. Alliteration
Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect. Figurative Language
An exxagerated statement used to make a strong affect. Example: My dog is so ugly, we have to pay people to pet him. Hyperbole
Words and phrases used specifically to help the readier to imagine each of the senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing, and taste. Imagery
A comparison between two unlike things without using the world like or as. Example: Joe is a lion on the playing field. Metaphor
Words whose sounds express their meaning. Examples: "buzz", "crash", "whirr", "clang", "hiss, "purr", "squeak", "mumble", "hush", "boom". Onomatopoeia
Putting two contradictory words together. Oxymoron
Giving lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects. Personification
A comparicson between two unlike things by using the words like or as. Simile
An image, object, character, or action that stands for an idea beyond its literal meaning. Symbol
Struggle between opposing forces in literature. Conflict
The method an author uses to communicate infromation about the characters. Characterization
A conflict between characters such as family conflict, trouble with a bully or diffuculties in romance. Character vs. Character
A conflict between a character and a force in nature such as a tornado, avalanche, extreme weather conditions or any type of natural disaster. This type of conflict is external. Character vs. Nature
An internal conflict that takes place in a character's mind. Character vs. Self
The moment when the action of the story comes to its highest point. This usually occurs at the end of the story just before the resolution. Climax
The background information that the author provides about the setting, plot, character and/opr other essential story elements. Exposition
The part of the story following the climax where there is a sharp decline in dramatic tension; this occurs just before the resoloution. Falling Action
Any story that is the product of imagination rather than fact. Fiction
The events that occur in the story beginning with the setting and ending with the resolution. Plot
Occurs at the end opf the story, and includes the story's action after the climax. Resolution
The part of the story including the exposition, which builds to the climax. Rising Action
Main chracter in opposition to the protagonist; sometiomes not a person but an obstacle such as a force of nature, society or inner conflict. Antagonist
The central character in a story that is the "godd guy", or the one with whom the reader identifies. Protagonist
The actual words/conversation that the charactr says to another character. Dialouge
The speaker of the story. Narrator
Perspective from which the story is being told. The main points of view are fisrt person, third person limited and third person omniscient. Point of View
The story is told from the view-point of a character; as a result the reader is only exposed to what the character experiences. First person point of view is always limited and third person point of view can either be limited or omniscient. Limited Point of View
"All knowing;" instead of being a character in the story, the narrator is outside the story so the thoughts of all the characters are present. Omniscient Point of View
A word that is the opposite of another word. Antonym
Information within the reading selection tat helps the reader figure out the meanings of challenging words. Context Clues
Two or more words that are pronoounced alike but have different meanings. Example: TOO; TO Homophone
Two or more words that are pronoounced alike but have different meanings. Example: TO; TWO Homonym
Letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning. Prefix
A word to which prefixes and suffixes are added. Root Word
Letters are placed at the end of a word to change its meaning. Suffix
Two or more words that have hgihly similar meanings. Synonym
The author's reason or intention for writing the selection. Always ask yourself - is the purpose to entertain or to persuade? Author's Purpose
The story of a person's life written by the person. Autobiography
The story of a person's life written by another person. Biography
The end of the reading selection. Conclusion
A narrative intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader. Fable
Categories of literature such as biography, mystery, historical, sports and romance. Genre
Techniques in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incident of an earlier time; it is often used to provide additional information. Flashback
Technique in which the author provides the reader with clues about events that will happen later in the story. Foreshadowing
A difference between what is expected and what actually happens. 2 types of dramatic and situational of this. Irony
A contradiction between what is said and what is meant. Verbal Irony
Occurs when there is a contradiction between what might be expected and what actually occurs. Dramatic Irony
Occurs when there is a contradiction between what the character thinks and what the reader knows ot be true. Situational Irony
The overall feeling created by the author's words. Mood
The environment of time and place where the action of a story occurs. Setting
The underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to convey or communicate to the reader. It may be thought of as the lesson or moral of the story. Theme
The clues of the story that suggest the writer's own attitude toward elements in the story. Tone
The author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique. Voice
Created by: 2015GupJah
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