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30 elements

Hydrogen Number: 1 Mass: 1 Symbol: H
Helium Number: 2 Mass: 4 Symbol: He
Lithium Number: 3 Mass: 7 Symbol: Li
Carbon Number: 6 Mass: 12 Symbol: C
Nitrogen Number: 7 Mass: 14 Symbol: N
Oxygen Number: 8 Mass: 16 Symbol: O
Fluorine Number: 9 Mass: 19 Symbol: F
Neon Number: 10 Mass: 20 Symbol: Ne
Sodium Number: 11 Mass: 23 Symbol: Na
Magnesium Number: 12 Mass: 24 Symbol: Mg
Aluminum Number: 13 Mass: 27 Symbol: Al
Silicon Number: 14 Mass: 28 Symbol: Si
Phosphorus Number: 15 Mass: 31 Symbol: P
Sulfer Number: 16 Mass: 32 Symbol: S
Chlorine Number: 17 Mass: 35 Symbol: Cl
Argon Number: 18 Mass: 40 Symbol: Ar
Potassium Number: 19 Mass: 40 Symbol: K
Calcium Number: 20 Mass: 40 Symbol: Ca
Titanium Number: 22 Mass: 48 Symbol: Ti
Manganese Number: 25 Mass: 55 Symbol: Mn
Iron Number: 26 Mass: 56 Symbol: Fe
Cobalt Number: 27 Mass: 59 Symbol: Co
Nickel Number: 28 Mass: 59 Symbol: Ni
Copper Number: 29 Mass: 64 Symbol: Cu
Zinc Number: 30 Mass: 65 Symbol: Zn
Silver Number: 47 Mass: 108 Symbol: Ag
Iodine Number: 53 Mass: 127 Symbol: I
Gold Number: 79 Mass: 197 Symbol: Au
Mercury Number: 80 Mass: 200 Symbol: Hg
Uranium Number: 92 Mass: 238 Symbol: U
Element A substance that cannot be broken down any further
Periods Number of energy levels or shells
Columns/ Chemical Families/ Groups Tells amount of valence electrons
Atomic Number Number of protons and electrons (not combined)
Atomic Mass Number of protons AND neutrons (combined)
Atom the smallest particle that retains the properties of a particular element
Protons Positive charge; located in nucleus of an atom
Neutrons Neutral/ no charge; located in nucleus of an atom
Electrons Negative charge; exist in motion around the nucleus and have almost no mass
Atomic Orbital (shell) A layer that surrounds the nucleus of an atom that contains the electrons
Valence electrons A number of electrons in an outer shell of an atom that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms
Alkali Metals 1st column on the periodic table (group 1) not including Hydrogen Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt) Soft enough to cut with a butter knife
Alkaline Earth Metals 2nd column on the periodic table Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature Several of these elements ate important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca)
Transition Metals Elements in groups 3-12 Includes metals in jewelry and construction Metals used "as metal" Less reactive harder metal
Boron Family Elements in group 13 Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a "disposable metal"
Carbon Family Elements in group 14 Contains elements important to life and computers Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors
Nitrogen Family Elements in group 15 Nitrogen makes up over 3/4 of the Earth's atmosphere Nitrogen and Phosphorus are both important in living things Most of the world's Nitrogen is not available to living things The red stuff on the tip of matches is Phosphorus
Oxygen Family/ Chalcogens Elements in group 16 reactive Contains metals, metalloids, and nonmetals Oxygen is necessary for respiration Many things that stink contain sulfer
Halogens Elements in group 17 All are nonmetals Very reactive and often bond with elements in group 1 Always found combined with other elements in nature Used as disinfectants
Noble Gases/ Inert Gases Elements in group 18 Exist as gases Nonmetals Not reactive
Rare Earth Metals Some are radioactive Silver, silvery-white, or gray Conduct electricity
Metals Have a color Solid form under standard conditions Mauble
Metalloid Appear like metal but they are brittle Semiconductors Solid under standard conditions
Lewis dot Structure Showing valence electrons
Inverse Relationship As one factor increases, as in distance, the other variable, volume, decreases
Covalent Bond In order to get this stability, atoms come together to achieve the noble gas configuration Sharing electrons
Ionic Bond Transfer of electrons from a metallic atom to a nonmetallic atom Donating electrons