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Module 14 Vocab

Apologia Marine Biology

deep ocean the layers of ocean where light is not abundant
mesopelagic zone the pelagic layer of the ocean where light can penetrate, yet without the intensity to support photosynthesis
deep sea the layer located below the mesopelagic and extending down to the ocean floor where absolutely no sunlight can penetrate
thermocline a thin but distinct layer in a large body of water in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below
photophores organs that produce light
neutrally buoyant organisms when, at rest, will neither float nor sink
bioluminescence the production of visible light by living organisms
counterillumination a type of countershading characterized by the placement of photophores on the underside of an organism's body
hermaphrodites an animal that has the reproductive organs of both sexes
meiofauna microscopic organisms living in between marine sediment particles
epifauna benthic animals that move about the surface of the sea bottom or are firmly attached to it
infauna organisms that live under the sediment of an ecosystem
gigantism a situation in which an organism grows to an extreme size
hydrothermal vent hot, actively spreading rift zone where heated water spews up from the crust
chemosynthesis the making of organic material from inorganic substances using chemical energy
black smokers formations around hydrothermal vents characterized by darkly colored, chimney-like structures
cold seeps some vents located in slow-spreading environments where the water temperatures are much cooler
white smokers formations around cold seeps characterized by deposits of white zinc sulfides
bacteriochlorophyll a highly sensitive chemical that can capture a single photon of light about once every eight hours
black body radiation infrared light emitted from any substance whose temperature is above absolute zero
chlorosomes organelles which are like light funnels that collect the relatively few photons in the water and store the light energy in food molecules