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topic 1 edexcel geography

conservative plate boundary opposite ways
divergent plate boundery away
convergent together
subduction zone plate underneath
continental crust old, can't be created or destroyed, granite.
oceanic crust new and more dense, than continental, basalt.
core levels inner core outer core mesosphere asthenosphere lithosphere
destructive plate boundary two plates moving together, volcanos and mountains- eg. Himalayas has active and infrequent, explosive volcanos
divergent plate boundaries rift volcanos, less explosive, mid Atlantic ridge, basaltic magma.
middle of plate features hotspots- hawaii
theories slab pull- convections paleomagnatism- north facing, geo timelines benioff zone- subduction zone
locked fault example 2004 indian ocean boxing day tsunami
epicenter the point at the surface of the earth that is directly above the hypocenter
hypocenter the point within the earth where earthquakes rapture starts
seismic waves waves that transmit energy released by an earthquake
p waves vibrations that are caused by compression
s waves slowly- vibrate at right angles, can't travel through liquids
L waves surface waves, high amplitude, horizontal plane
soil liquéfaction solids behaving like liquids
secondary hazard examples soil liquéfaction landslides avalanches tsunamis
measuring deserters examples degg model hazard, deserter, venerability risk perception model pressure release model- parr
hazard risk formula hazard x exposure vunrabillity manafibillity
richer scale earthquake- amplitude
mercalli scale earthquake- human impact
moment magnatude scale earthquake- seismic movement
VEI volcanic- volume of ejecta
disaster hotspots a country or area that is disaster prone
risk reduction factors preparedness responce recovery mitigation developtment climate change adaption
disaster response curve pre deserter relief rehab reconstruction