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Biology Study Guide

Biology Module 4 Study Guide

1a. Extracellular digestion Digestion that takes place outside of the cell.
1b. Mycelium The part of the fungus responsible for extracellular digestion and absorption of the digested food.
1c. Hypha A filament of fungal cells.
1d. Rhizoid hypha A hypha that is imbedded in the material on which the fungus grows.
1e. Aerial hypha A hypha that is not imbedded in the material upon which the fungus grows.
1f. Sporophore Specialized aerial hypha that produces spores.
1g. Stolon An aerial hypha that asexually reproduces to make more filaments.
1h. Haustorium A hypha of a parasitic fungus that enters the host's cells, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
1i. Chitin A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
1j. Membrane A thin covering of tissue.
1k. Fermentation The anaerobic breakdown of sugars into smaller molecules.
1l. Zygospore A zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.
1m. Zygote The result of sexual reproduction when each parent contributes half of the DNA necessary for the offspring.
1n. Antibiotic A chemical secreted by a living organism that kills or reduces the reproduction rate of other organisms.
2a. Which of the following characteristics or structures exist for the vast majority of fungi? Extracellular digestion, mycelia, hyphae, rhizoid hyphae, chitin, cells.
2b. Which are present in only a few species? Septate hyphae, haustoria, cap and stalk, sporangiaphores, stolon, motile spores.
3. Some biologists say that a mushroom is much like an iceberg, because only about 10% of an iceberg is visible from the surface of the ocean. What do they mean? A large portion of the mushroom is undergound and not visible.
4. What is the difference between septate and nonseptate hyphae? Septate hyphae- The hyphae are composed of individual cells separated from one another by cell walls. Nonseptate hyphae- There are no walls and the nuclei are spread throughout the hypha.
5a. What is the function of the following specialized hyphae? Rhizoid hyphae- Supports the fungus and digests the food.
5b. Stolon- Asexually reproduces to form new filaments.
5c. Sporophore- Produces spores.
5d. Haustorium- Enters the cells of a host, absorbing nutrition directly from the cytoplasm.
6. Of the hyphae listed in question 5, which are aerial? Stolon and sporophore.
7. What is the difference between a sporangiophore and a conidiophore? Sporangiophore- Sporophore that forms its spores within an enclosure. Conidiophore- Sporophore that forms spores without an enclosure.
8. Give the main characteristic associated with each of the phyla of kingdom Fungi: Basidiomycota- Form spores on clublike basidia.
8b. Ascomycota- Form spores in saclike asci.
8c. Zygomycota- Form spores (called zygospores) in small structures that are formed where hyphae fuse with one another for the purpose of reproduction.
8d. Chytridiomycota- Forms spores that have flagella.
8e. Deuteromycota- Reproduction method is unknown.
8f. Myxomycota- Produce sporophores for reproduction. Fungi that look like protozoa for much of their lives.
9. Describe each of the stages (in chronological order) associated with the life cycle of a mushroom, starting with the formation of a mycelium. 1.Two mycelia are formed. 2.Two fused mycelia sexually reproduce. 3.New mycelia form. 4.Hyphae form in membrane. 5.Stripe & cap emerge from button. 6.Full stripe and cap become present. 7.Basidiospores created. 8.Basidia release basidiospores.
10. What is the main difference between shelf fungi, puffballs, and mushrooms? They all reproduce differently.
11. What is an alternate host? A host that is not the main host. Rusts
12. What type of fungus is best known for fermentation? To which phylum does it belong? Yeast. Ascomycota.
13. How is budding different from the asexual reproduction in bacteria? The daughter cell remains attached to the parent cell as it grows.
14. Name at least two pathogenic fungi and the maladies that they cause. Cryphonectria parasitica which causes chestnut blight. Ophiostoma ulmi which causes Dutch elm disease.
15. Describe the three ways a bread mold can reproduce. In each case, specify whether the reproduction is sexual or asexual. Asexually reproduce when a stolen lengthens and forms new filaments. Asexually when they produce sporangia from aerial hyphae that release spores. Hyphae can fuse together and sexually reproduce to form a zygospore that can mature into another fungus.
16. What puts a fungus into phylum Deuteromycota? Its reproduction method is unknown.
17. What can happen when an antibiotic is used too much? The bacteria can become immune.
18. Name the genus of the fungus that produces penicillin. genus Penicillium
19. When a slime mold is a plasmodium, it resembles organisms from what kingdom? kingdom Protista
20. What is the easiest way to get rid of slime molds? Dry the area.
21. What are the two major forms of mutualism in which fungi participate? Describe each relationship and the job of each participant in that relationship. Lichen-a mutual relationship between a fungus and an algae. The alga produces food for both creatures and the fungus supports and protects the alga.
21. Mycorrhiza- a mutual relationship between a fungus's mycelium and a plant's root system. The mycelium takes nutrientsfrom the root and collects minerals from the soil and gives them to the root.
22. What is a soredium? A dustlike substance that contains spores of both the alga and the fungus of a symbiosis.
Created by: LiseBrinkley
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