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What carries out all chemical activities needed to sustain life Are groups of cell tissues that are similar in structure and function and are the building blocks of all living things? Cells and Tissues
What occurs only in myelinated neurons, is faster than normal nerve conduction and occurs from one node of Ranvier towards the next node of Ranvier? Saltatory conduction
What emulsifies fats in the small intestines, supports kidney and waste disposal , energy storage and use, and blood clotting and maintenace of osmotic balance of the body? Homeostatic function of the liver
what is the protection of the internal environment from the harms of fluctuations in the external environment? Homeostasis
An increase in the number of cells, size of cells, tissues, organs, and the body resulting in a single cell becoming a multi cellular complex organism is known as ? Metabolism
Mesosomes are a basic external extension of what? Cell membrane
Various functions of this are: DNA Replication Cell Division Export of extracellular enzymes Respiratory enzymes are also present Mesosomes
All of the following are key features of qualitative research except? - Collection primarily of quantitative data - A focus on human subjectitvity - Exploratory research questions - Reasoning that moves from more sprcific kinds of statements to more - Collection primarily of quantitative data
Which is not a core principle among fundamental research ethics principles except: respect for communitites beneficence respect for the person justice Respect for communities
What is termed as research conducted with some practical purpose in mind? Applied research
what is the prerequisite of a good experimental procedure? There is no need to explain the need of repeating the experiment
What is NOT true regarding a focus group? Ideally exceeds 12 participants
What are 3 types of variables? Independent, Dependent, and Controlled
What organelle is responsible for food and water storage in cells? Vacuole
what is cytokinese? the division of cytoplasm
What do you call the process of producing polypeptide from an RNA template? Translation
Which of the following of organelles are involved for cell movement? Cilia
The cytoplasmic organelle containing fluid filled tubules for carrying and transporting substances is know as: Endoplasmic reticulum
what describes why the rough endoplasmic can synthesize proteins while the smooth endoplasmic reticulum cannot? rough ER is studded with ribosomes while the smooth ER is not
The ultimate end product of glucose breakdown in glycolysis is: Pyruvic acid
Which nucleic acids carry amino acids to to organelles called ribosomes where these amino acids are linked one by one to produce a polypeptide? tRNA
What correctly pairs a metabolic process with its site of occurrence? Electron transport chain- mitochondrial membrane
Membrane transport- The movement of substances in and out of the cell is carried out through: both active and passive transport
What describes the function of the mitochondria? Energy production
what correctly describes a difference between the cytosol and the mitochondrion? The mitochondrion is a membrane- bound organelle but the cytosol is not
The dominant mode of carbon dioxide transport in the body us through: Bicarbonate
How many molecules of NADPH and ATP are required to reduce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to glucose via photosynthesis? 12 NADP and 18 ATP
What are the products of anaerobic respiration in humans? Lactic acid and carbon dioxide
This refers to a type of stem cell that can develop into any cell found in the human body? Totipotent
Which enzyme is responsible for adding a nucleotide to a growing DNA chain? Polymerase
What enzyme catalyzes okazaki fragments? Ligase
What do you call the max volume of air contained in the lung by a full forced inhalation? Total lung capacity
Given 5 molecules of FADH2, how many ATP molecules will be produced during aerobic respiration? 10 (2 ATP)
Where does the respiratory systems exchanging of gases take place? Alveoli
What refers to the chemical reactions which degrade or destroy complex molecules within an organism to capture energy? Catabolism
What is a function of the Pleurae? to compartmentalize and lubricate the lung
what is the end product of glycolysis? Pyruvate
What do you call a condition where blood contains a high percentage of carbon dioxide and a very low percentage of oxygen? Asphyxia
What do you call cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cells? Stem cells
What do you call the study of changes in the body's structure over time? Developmental biology
What do you call the volume of the maximum air that can be expelled from the lungs after maximum inhalation? vital capacity
What do you call organisms that are able to produce their own food? Autotroph
What is the final product of the Calvin Cycle? Glyceraldehyde-3-phostphate (G3P)
What do you call stem cells that give rise to all types of blood cells? Hematopoietic stem cell
What water soluble vitamin is NOT produced in the large intestine? Pantothenic Acid or Vitamin B5
Which metal Caton is found in the center of a Heme? Iron (II)
Name 3 jobs of the heart valve: - Atrioventricular (AV) valve lies between the atria and the ventricles - AV valves prevent back flow into the atria when ventricles contract - Pulmonary semilunar valve lies between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
Heart rate in excess of 100 beats per min is known as? Tachycardia
What is regarding the consituents of blood, a biconcave disc that is round and flat without a nucleus? Red blood cell
The esophagus is part of which human body system? Digestive system
What do you call the space between the two lungs? Mediastinum
T orF? The heart beat begins when the heart muscles contract and blood flows into the atria False
What can be a route for both food and air? Laryngopharynx
Cardiac muscle later forming the bulk of the heart is known as? Myocardium
The blood is carried AWAY from the heart in large vessels known as? Arteries
The collective secretion of which of the following cells is known as gastric juice? - Mucous cells that secrete mucous - Parietal or oxyntic cells secrete hydrochloric acid - Zymogen cells which secrete pepsinogen
What is the correct sequence for the passage of oxygen? Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lungs
Name 3 job of the circulatory system: -Carries blood and dissolved substances to and from different places in the body. - The R side deals with deoxygenated blood and the L system deals with the oxygenated blood - Heart and blood vessels together make up the circulatory system
What functions filters particles from the incoming air? nasal hair
T or F? Pericardium is a single walled later around the heart? False it is a double walled sac around the heart
Name 3 branches of facial arteries in the cervical portion: Tonsillar artery Glandular artery Ascending palatine artery
Describe 3 microscopic anatomy areas of the heart muscles: - The connective tissue endomysium acts as both tendon and insertion - Cardiac muscles is striated, short , fat, branched and interconnected - Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together and allow free passage of ions
The blood is carried TOWARDS the heart in large vessels known as? Veins
What is considered the most powerful stimulus for breathing in a health person? Increase in carbon dioxide
From an anterior view vessels carrying blood away from the heart include: - Pulmonary truck - Left common carotid - Subclavian arteries
What does the P-Wave in ECG correspond to? Depolarization of SA node
In sensory neurons, which part of the neuron receives the stimulus? Dendrites
What is the main conductin unit of a neuron capable of conveying electrical signals along distance to reach other neurons? Axon
What is known as a wave of muscular contractions that push the bolus down towards the stomach? Peristasis
Which organ is responsible for the production of the bile? Liver
Where is bile stored and concentrated while the pancreas helps digestion and regulation of blood sugar? Gall bladder
where is nutrients absorption occur? Small intestine
Which neurotransmitter slows down the activity of the neurons , preventing them from getting over excited? GABA or gamma amino butyric
Which of the lobes of the brain is responsible for sensation, perception, visual, recognition and spatial reasoning? Parietal lobe
Which lobe functions in processing auditory sounds? Temporal lobe
Which lobe is in the center and is responsible for regulating social behavior such as: emotions planning sexual urges impulse control? Frontal lobe
What lobe is the visual processing for the center of the brain? Occipital lobe
Name parts of the male reproductive system: Seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral gland, vans deferens and testis.
Which part of the brain is responsible for higher brain functions such as thought or action? Cerebrum
Which part of the brain is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture and balance? Cerebellum
What is the brain stem responsible for? all basic life functions like breathing, heart beat and blood pressure
What part of the brain is responsible for emotions, emotional behavior and motivation? Amygdala
Wha is the correct arrangement of the segments of the small intestine from the posterior end upward? Ileum, jejunum, duodenum
What are tiny finger like projections in the small intestines? Villi
Describe the process of digestions: Digestion begins when food enters the mouth, it is physically broken down by the teeth and chemically broken down by the amylase, the tongue moves the food around until it forms a ball called a bolus
What are 3 functions of the digestive system? Digestions Absorption Secretion
Within the small intestine, where does the majority of absorption take place? Jejunum
Where does emulsification of fats get carried out to and acidity of chyme is reduced through the action of the pancreatic juice ? Duodenum
What are 3 functions of the large intestine? Vitamin B Production Absorption of water production of vitamin K
What is a fatty substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells forming and insulin layer , and increases the speed at which impulses travel along the nerve fiber by saltatory conduction, preventing electric currents from leaving the axon? Myelin sheath
Which systems are involved in the control of digestion? Nervous system Circulatory system Digestive system
Which meninges is a thin membrane containing many nerve and blood vessels that provide nourishment to the underlying brain cells and spinal cord? Pia mater
what is the myelin sheath produced by? Oligodendrocytes
What cells form membranes that cover brain parts an d inner lining of cavities? Ependymal cells
What structural support helps regulate nutrient/ion concentration and form scar tissue? Astrocytes
Name parts of the female reproductive system: Cervix, fallopian tubes, ovaries, endometrium, and the uterus.
The kidneys are related to which other system? Cardiovascular
Aldosterone is the major representative of which type of steroid hormones? Mineralocorticoids
What is the prominent member of glucocorticoids? Cortisol
What is the representative for androgens? Testosterones
Estradiol and estone represent which hormone? Estrogen
What is considered part of the genitourinary system? Kidneys (cortex, and medulla), the ureter, and the urinary bladder
What cells are known as phagocytes? White blood cells
What are Apocrine and Eccrine: Sweat glands
The nephron is part of which organ? Kidney
What are the 3 layer of skin? Hypodermis Dermis Epidermis
Which constitute the regional groups of lymph nodes? Parotid lymph nodes Submandibular lymph nodes Submental lymph nodes
What are the functions of the endocrine system? Endocrine glands synthesize and store hormones and constitute a sensing and signaling system which regulates the duration and magnitude of hormone release via feedback from the targeted cell. Maintenance of the interal environment in the body. Intergrati
What is the purpose of the genitourinary system? Excretion
Name the parts of the integumentary system: Hair follicles fingernails and toenails swear glands nerves hypodermis, dermis, epidermis
what is a termed used for exocrine glands that accumulate product in the apex of the cell where it will then detach after a period of time? Apocrine contains excretion which then buds off
The hormone that acts on the same cell that produced it has was type of action? Autocrine action
The reproductive system uses hormones created in what other system? Endocrine system
Explain the inflammatory response of the immune system; Capillaries dilate, pyrogen is release, temp rises, pain receptors activate, WBC's flock to the infected area
What is thermoregulation? The process by which the body regulates its temperature for both heat and cold
What is considered the first line of defense in the immune system of the body? Skin, mucus and cilia, saliva, stomach acid
The internal dark brown layer of a human kidney containing cone like structures known as renal pyramids is termed as: Medulla
What do you call major matrix producing cells in connective tissue proper? Fibroblast
The concentration of hormones as seen by target cells are determined by which of the following factors? Rate of production Rate of delivery Rate of degradation and elimination of hormones
Created by: Maguiar