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JFraser Genetics

Genetics Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Homo Same (homozygous)
Hetero Different (heterozygous)
Geno Genetic information (genotype)
Pheno Physical appearance, the trait that "shows" (phenotype)
Co Together, both, with (codominance)
Zyg Yoke, When egg and sperm join or conbine (zygote, homozygous, heterozygous)
Di Two
Biology The study of life
Genetics The branch of biology that studies heredity
Heredity The passing of characteristics from parents to offspring
Gregor Mendel The "Father of Genetics"
Trait Any trait that can be passed from parent to offspring (can be dominant or recessive)
Alleles Alternative forms of a trait or gene (we use letters to represent these)
Gene Section of a chromosome (DNA) that controls a trait
Gametes Reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
Haploid Cell A cell with one of each kind of chromosome (sperm and egg cells are examples of a haploid cell)
Diploid Cell A cell with two of each kind of chromosome (all body cells are examples because they have 23 pair of chromosomes)
Sperm Haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis
Egg Haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis
Fertilization Fusion of male and female gametes
Pollimation Transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of a flower (therefore pollination is "sexual reproduction"
Meiosis Process that creates sex cells (sperm and egg)
Heterozygous Genotype of an individual with 2 different alleles for a given trait; Example: Tt (Another word for this is hybrid)
Hybrid Has 2 different alleles for the same trait; Example Tt
Homozygous Genotype of an individual with 2 of the same alleles for a given trait (both could be dominant TT or both could be recessive tt) Another word for this is purebred.
Purebred Has 2 identical alleles for the same trait; Example TT or tt
Dominant Allele The allele that masks or covers up the recessive allele in a heterozygous individual. It is represented with a capital letter.
Recessive Allele The allele that is masked or covered up in a heterozygous individual. It is represented with a lower case letter.
Law of Dominance If 2 alleles in a gene pair are different , then one allele (the dominant one) will control the other (the recessive one). The recessive one will be masked or covered up.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype the external, physical appearance of an individual determined by its' genotype
Punnett Square A graphical representation of possible genotypes of offspring
Pedigree A diagram of the genetic history of an individual; can show how a trait is inherited over several generations of a family
Carrier An individual who has the allele for a trait or disease but does not have the disease, does not outwardly express or show the trait. A carrier can pass the trait to offspring.
Incomplete Dominance Occurs when neither allele is dominant. They both have an effect on the heterozygous individual which shows a phenotype between the 2 homozygous phenotypes. The dominant alleles mix- yellow and blue flowers result in green flowers
Codominance Neither allele is dominant
Created by: janfraser