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CH 46

Vasodilators

QuestionAnswer
Hydralazine - produce selective dilation of arterioles
Nitroglycerine - produce selective dilation of veins
Prazosin - produces dilation of arterioles and veins
Drugs that dilate resistance vessels(arterioles) cause a decrease in? - cardiac AFTERLOAD
Drugs that dilate capacitance vessels (veins) reduce the force with which? - blood is returned to the heart, which reduces ventricular filling = decreased cardiac PRELOAD
Vasodilators commonly cause Postural Hypotension - fall in blood pressure brought on by moving from a supine to standing position. caused by relaxation of smooth muscle in veins
Vasodilators cause an increase in? FALLS
Reflex Tachycarddia - prevented with use of a beta blocker
Expansion of blood volume is caused by? - prolonged use of arteriolar venous dilators
Hydralazine - causes selective dilation of arterioles
Hydralazine uses: - essential hypertension (always include beta blocker and diuretic) -Hypertensive crisis: (IV)used to lower blood pressure rapidly -Heart failure
Hydralazine adverse effects: - Reflex tachycaria - increased blood volume (prevent w/ diuretic) - Systemic Lupus Erythematosus- like Syndrome - headache, dizziness, weakness, fatigue
Hydralazine drug interactions: - Other hypertensive agents need to be monitored to avoid excessive hypotension CAN BE GIVEN WITH: beta blockers & diuretics
MINOXIDIL - Produces more intense dilation than hydralazine with more serious adverse effects -RESERVED for patients w/ severe hypertension
Minoxidil - produces selective dilation of arterioles
MINOXIDIL USES: - Severe hypertension ONLY - Should be used with beta blocker and diuretic therapy
MINOXIDIL adverse effects: - Reflex Tachycardia: beta blocker to prevent - Sodium and water retention: MUST BE USED with LOOP DIURETIC or dialysis - Hypertrichosis: excessive hair growth (AKA ROGAINE) - Pericardial effusion - nausea, h/a, breast tenderness etc
Sodium Nitroprusside - HYPERTENSIVE EMERGENCIES!!!*** - used for producing controlled hypotension in surgeries
Sodium Nitroprusside - causes arteriolar and venous dilation
How is Sodium Nitroprusside given? IV infusion (BP can be adjusted to any level) - can trigger retention of sodium and water - originally powder form then diluted for IV
Sodium Nitroprusside metabolism - contains five cyanide groups
Sodium Nitroprusside Adverse effects - excessive hypotension - cyanide poisoning - thiocyanate toxicity
Color of fresh solution of Sodium Nitroprusside? - faint brown color - other colors (blue, red, green) should be discarded
Created by: KristinL