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Med Surg 1

Chapter 13 - Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances

Acidosis Acid-Base imbalance characterized by an increase in H+ concentration. Decreased blood pH.
Metabolic Acidosis Low arterial pH due to reduced bicarbonate concentration.
Respiratory Acidosis Low arterial pH due to increased PCO2.
Ascites Type of edema in which fluid accumulates in peritoneal cavity.
Active Transport Physiologic pump that moves fluid from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration. Requires adenosine triphosphate for energy.
Alkalosis Acid-Base imbalance characterized by reduction in H+ concentration. Increased blood pH.
Metabolic Alkalosis High arterial pH with increased bicarbonate concentration.
Respiratory Alkalosis High arterial pH due to reduced PCO2.
Diffusion Process by which solutes move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Does not require expenditure of energy.
Homeostasis Maintenance of a constant internal equilibrium in a biologic system that involves positive and negative mechanisms.
Hydrostatic Pressure Pressure created by the weight of fluid against the wall that contains it.
Hypertonic Solution Solution with an osmolality higher than that of serum.
Hypotonic Solution Solution with an osmolality lower than that of serum.
Isotonic Solution Solution with the same osmolality as serum and other body fluids.
Osmolality Number of milliosmoles per kilogram of solvent.
Milliosmoles Standard unit of osmotic pressure.
Osmolarity Number of milliosmoles per liter of solution. Describes the concentration of solute or dissolved particles.
Osmosis Process by which fluid moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. Process continues until solute concentrations are equal on both sides of membrane.
Tonicity Fluid tension or the effect that osmotic pressure of a solution with impermeable solutes exerts on cell size because of water movement across the cell membrane.
Created by: danatmock