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SSA Review - Life

Life Science SSA Review

Cell The smallest unit that is "alive"
Cell Membrane The outer covering of the cell
Nucleus The center of the cell, contains the DNA
Cytoplasm The gooey filling inside the cell
Mitochondria The organelles that make energy for the cell
Cell Wall The thick, tough outermost layer of PLANT cells
Choloroplasts The organelles that contain cholorophyll
Vacuoles The organelles that store materials, ex: water storage in plant cells
Homeostasis The process of maintaining stable internal conditions in order to stay alive
Digestive System Body system that breaks down food. Esophagus, stomach, and intestines
Respiratory System Body system that brings in oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide, Lungs
Circulatory System Body system that brings oxygen and nutrients to cells, and removes carbon dioxide and waste from cells. Heart, blood, arteries & veins
Excretory System Body system that removes waste from the body. Kidneys, bladder, large intestine
Immune System Body system that fights disease and infection, White blood cells & lymph nodes
Nervous System Body system that sends signals to the body and receives information, Brain & nerves
Musculoskeletal System Body system that allows the body to move, Bones & muscles
Reproductive System Body system that allows living things to reproduce, Ovaries & testes
Bacteria Prokaryotic, unicellular living things
Prokaryote A simple cell with out a nucleus (bacteria)
Eukaryote A complex cell with a nucleus and organelles (everything EXCEPT bacteria)
Archaea Bacteria that live in extreme environments
Protists Complex unicellular organisms, "pond scum", amoeba, euglena
Fungus Living things that have cell walls and absorb nutrients from their environment. They do NOT do photosynthesis. Mold, yeast, & mushrooms.
Plants Living things that have cell walls and get energy by doing photosynthesis
Animals Living things that are multi-cellular and must eat for energy
DNA Contains the genetic information for living things. Found in the nucleus of the cell.
Heredity Passing genetic traits from one generation to another
Sexual Reproduction Requires 2 parents. Offspring have a combination of parents DNA & characteristics.
Asexual Reproduction Only 1 parent. Offspring are an exact copy of the parent
Mitosis When a cell divides to make 2 cells.
Meiosis How gametes (reproductive cells) are formed. One cell divides then divides again to make 4 cells, each with 1/2 the original DNA.
Dominant Trait The trait that will be expressed if it is present. Represented by upper-case letters.
Recessive Trait A trait that can be "covered up" by a dominant trait. Represented by lower-case letters.
Genotype The chromosomes that an organism has (BB, Bb, or bb)
Phenotype The appearance of the organism, if the dominant or recessive trait is visible
Homozygous An organism that has two of the same alleles (BB or bb)
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles (Bb)
Punnett Square A graphic that is used to predict the possible offspring
Pedigree Chart A graphic that shows inheritance of a particular trait over several past generations.
Fossil The remains of an organism preserved in rock
Autotroph Producers, make food through photosynthesis
Heterotrophs Consumers, must eat to get energy
Decomposers Break down dead organisms for energy
Mutualism Both species are helped by the interaction... a win-win. Ex: Bees & flowers
Parasitism One species benefits by causing damage to another... a win-lose. Ex: Tapeworm & host
Commensalism One species benefits, the other is neither hurt nor helped Ex: Clownfish & sea anemone
Predation One species eats another species
Competition More than one living thing trying to use the same resources
Limiting Factor Something that limits the number of living things that can survive in a particular area (Ex: Food, water, space)
Photosynthesis Light + carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygen
Cellular Respiration Oxygen + sugar = water + carbon dioxide + energy
Created by: Stszerdy