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Apologia Human Body

Module 9

QuestionAnswer
Sensory receptor An organ which responds to a specific type of stimulus by ultimately triggering an action potential on a sensory neuron
Somatic receptors Sensory receptors in the skin, muscle, and tendons
Visceral receptors Sensory receptors in the internal organs
Special receptors Sensory receptors in specific locations
Mechanoreceptors Sensory receptors which respond to movement
Thermoreceptors Sensory receptors which respond to heat or cold
Photoreceptors Sensory receptors which respond to light
Chemoreceptors Sensory receptors which respond to chemicals
Nociceptors Sensory receptors which respond to pain or excess stimulation
Cutaneous receptors Receptors in the skin
Proprioceptors Receptors in the muscles and tendons
lens bends light to focus it on the retina
sclera maintains the shape of the eye, protects the inner components of the eye, provides a point of attachment for the muscles that move the eye
vitreous humor gives the general shape to the eyeball by inflating it
optic nerve carries action potentials to the brain
retina contains the light receptors that detect light
choroid supplies the eye's tissues with oxygen and nutrients
conjunctiva protects and lubricates the eye
posterior chamber holds the aqueous humor
anterior chamber holds the aqueous humor
cornea covers the eye and bends light for focusing
Merkel's disks receptors for light touch
pupil allows light to enter the eye
iris controls the size of the pupil
suspensory ligaments connects the ciliary body to the lens
ciliary body contains the ciliary muscle which changes the shape of the lens
The cell body of a neuron rests in the spinal cord, and the axon travels all the way to the effector it controls. This is a(n) ________________________ neuron. somatic motor
___________________ neurons all have a synapse at an autonomic ganglion in between the spinal cord and the effector. Autonomic
In the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, the preganglionic neuron is ____________ and the postganglionic neuron is ____________. short, long
In the parasympathetic division of the ANS, the preganglionic neuron is ___________ and the postganglionic neuron is _____________. long, short
The sympathetic division neurons can be found ______________, but the parasympathetic nerves can be found __________________. all over the body; only in the head and trunk
In the sympathetic division, the autonomic ganglia are close to the __________________, while in the parasympathetic division they are close to the ________________. spinal cord; effector
Hair follicle receptors detect the movement of hair
Pacinian corpuscle pressure receptors
Meissner's corpuscles two-point discrimination
Ruffini's organ pressure and stretch receptors
Which proprioceptors detect the extent to which a muscle is relaxed? muscle spindle
Which proprioceptors detect the extent to which a muscle is contracted? Golgi tendon organs
To smell a substance, it must: a) be volatile to get airborne, b) rise to the _______________ recess to get to the olfactory epitheleum, c) get through the mucous membrane by being somewhat water and lipid _____________, and bind to a ___________________ olfactory, soluble, receptor
These are found on the tongue circumvallate papillae, filiform papillae, foliate papillae, fungiform papillae
These contain taste buds circumvallate papillae, foliate papillae, fungiform papillae
Why do you need to hit every section of taste buds to fully taste a substance? Need to excite all of the taste buds for the different kinds of tastes (sour, salty, bitter, and sweet)
These are involved in a sense of static equilibrium altricular macula, vestibule, saccular macula, otoliths, gelatinous matrix, kinocilium, stereocilia, hair cell, support cell
These are involved in the sense of dynamic equilibrium ampullae, cupula, hair cell, crista ampullaris
When a sound wave hits your ear, this is the first structure to vibrate tympanic membrane
When a sound wave hits your ear, this is the last structure to vibrate tectorial membrane
Cells responsible for the detection of light color cones
Cells responsible for the detection of low levels of light rods
Where are the cones concentrated in the retina? fovea centralis
Process of the lens changing shape to adjust the eye's focus at different distances accomodation
free nerve endings receptors for heat, cold, movement, itch, and pain
Merkel's disks light touch receptors
hair follicle receptors detect the movement of hair
Pacinian corpuscle pressure and vibration receptors
Meissner's corpuscles two-point discrimination
Ruffini's organ pressure and stretch receptors
Created by: q