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chapter 11

cell structure and function

cell theory states that all living things are made of one or more cells, the cell is the smallest unit of life, and all new cells come from preexisting cells
macromolecule form by joining many small molecules together
nucleic acid macromolecules that form when long chains of molecules called nucleotides join together
protein long chains of amino acid molecules
lipid large macromolecule that doesn't dissolve in water
carbohydrate one sugar molecule, two sugar molecules, or a long chain of sugar molecules
cell membrane flexible covering that protects the inside of a cell that protects the inside of a cell from the environment outside a cell
cell wall stiff structure outside the cell membrane
cytoplasm fluid inside a cell that contains salt and other molecules
cytoskeleton network of threadlike proteins that are joined together
organelle have specialized functions, and are surrounded by membranes
nucleus part of a eukaryotic cell that directs cell activities and contains genetic information stored in DNA
chloroplast membrane-bound organelle that use light energy and make food- a sugar called glucose- from water and carbon dioxide in a process known as photosynthesis
passive transport movement of substances through a cell membrane without using the cell's energy
diffusion movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
osmosis diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane
facilitated diffusion when molecules pass through a cell's membrane using special proteins called transport proteins
active transport movement of substances through a cell membrane only by using the cell's energy
endocytosis the process during which a cell takes in a substance surrounding it with the cell membrane
exocytosis process during which a cells vesicles release their contents outside the cell
cellular respiration series of chemical reactions that convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP
glycolysis process done by which glucose a sugar is broken down into smaller molecules
fermentation reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells can use to obtain energy from foods when oxygen levels are low
photosynthesis series of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and CO2 into the food-energy molecule glucose and give off oxygen
Created by: booecam3836