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Microbiology

Microbial Metabolism

QuestionAnswer
Energy-yielding series of reactions CATABOLISM
Means "whole enzyme" HOLOENZYME
A nonprotein component of an active enzyme COENZYME
A measure of the rate of activity of an enzyme TURNOVER NUMBER
A protein portion of an enzyme, inactive without a cofactor APOENZYME
A group of enzymes that function as electron carriers in respiration and photosynthesis CYTOCHROMES
A mechanism by which fatty acids are degraded BETA OXIDATION
Both the carbon source and energy source are usually the same organic compound CHEMOHETEROTROPH
Photosynthetic, but uses organic material rather than carbon dioxide as a carbon source PHOTOHETEROTROPH
The photosynthetic purple nonsulfur bacteria would be classified in this nutritional group PHOTOHETEROTROPH
Photosynthetic bacteria that use carbon dioxide as a carbon source PHOTOAUTOTROPH
Changes the shape of the active site of an enzyme NONCOMPETITIVE INHIBITOR
Very similar in shape or chemisty to the normal enzyme substrate. COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR
Hexose monophosphate shunt PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY
The final electron acceptor is oxygen AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Produces important intermediates that act as precursors in the synthesis of nucleic acids and so on. PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY
Bacteria use oxygen substitutes such as nitrates ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
Pyruvic acid accepts electrons and is turned into various end products, such as lactic acid or ethanol FERMENTATION
Glucose to pyruvic acid. GLYCOLYSIS
Electrons are removed from an organic compound and are transferred by an electron transport chain to oxygen OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
An electron is liberated from chlorophyll and passes down an electron transport chain PHOTOPHOSPHORYLATION
A dehydrogenase coenzyme derived from nicotinic acid (niacin) NAD+
A dehydrogenase coenzyme derived from riboflavin FMN
In chemiosmosis, protons can diffuse across a membrane only through special channels that contain this enzyme ATP synthase
Pyruvic acid loses carbon dioxide to form an acetyl group DECARBOXYLATION
Glycolysis EMBDEN-MEYERHOF
A photosynthetic organism that does not produce oxygen ANOXYGENIC
Removal of electrons OXIDATION
Uses an inorganic source of energy such as ammonia or elemental sulfur CHEMOAUTOTROPHIC
A chemoheterotroph that lives on dead organic matter is called a _____________ SAPROPHYTE
When an enzyme's active site is occupied at all times by substrate or product molecules, it is called ____________ SATURATED
Cyanide is an example of a general type of inhibitor called ___________ NONCOMPETITIVE
Sulfa drugs are an example of a type of inhibitor called _____________. COMPETITIVE
In ________________ phosphorylation, no oxygen or other inorganic final electron acceptor is required. SUBSTRATE-LEVEL
Cyanobacteria produce __________ gas, just as do higher plants. OXYGEN
The amount of ATP yield from aerobic respiration by a prokaryote is _______________. 38
The amount of ATP yield from glycolysis is ________________. 2
The removal of NH2 from an amino acid is called _____________. DEAMINATION
The removal of -COOH from an amino acid is called ____________. DECARBOXYLATION
The substance acted upon by an enzyme is called the _____________. SUBSTRATE
Coenzyme A is a derivative of the B vitamin ________________ acid. PANTOTHENIC
A sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions in a cell is called a ________________ pathway. METABOLIC
Glucose is usually broken down to pyruvic acid by ____________. GLYCOLYSIS
In aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl ___________; this product can then enter the Kreb's cycle. CoA
DNA and RNA are made up of repeating units called ____________. NUCLEOTIDES
Why are catabolic and anabolic reactions referred to as coupled reactions? Because catabolic reactions furnish the energy necessary to drive anabolic reactions.
Explain how competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibitors work. Competitive bind to and fill the active site of an enzyme. May or may not be reversible. Noncompetitive interact with some other part of the enzyme, results in a change in the active site of the enzyme. This prevents binding so the reaction cannot occur
How does the ultimate fate of electrons liberated differ in cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation? Cyclic; electrons liberated from chlorophyll pass through the electron chain and return to the chlorophyll, Noncyclic; electrons pass through to the electron acceptor, NADP+, then replaced in chlorophyll from the splitting of water.
What are the key features of the pentose phosphate pathway? Provides a means for the breakdown of pentose sugars, Produces intermediates that are precursors in the synthesis of nucleic acids, some amino acids, glucose from CO2 in photosynthesis.
Created by: Micheleledet17