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Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Helical; move by flagella, if present SPIRILLA
Spherical; in chains STREPTOCOCCI
Divide in three regular planes; spheres form cubelike packets. SARCINAE
Helical; axial filaments for motility SPIROCHETES
A simple, commalike curve VIBRIOS
Name means "little staff" BACILLI
Meiosis occurs in reproduction EUKARYOTIC CELL
Single circular chromosome without histones PROKARYOTIC CELL
Sterols generally present in cell membrane EUKARYOTIC CELL
Cell wall almost always contains peptidoglycans PROKARYOTIC CELL
Nucleus bounded by a membrane. EUKARYOTIC CELL
Contain pigments for photosynthesis by bacteria; found in the plasma membrane. CHROMATOPHORES
Gram negative bacterial cells after their treatment with lysozyme. SPHEROPLASTS
Specialized external structures that assist in the transfer of genetic material between cells. SEX PILI
Numerous short, hairlike appendages that help in attachment to mucous membranes FIMBRIAE
General term for substances surrounding bacterial cells GLYCOCALYX
Polysaccharides found in the cell wall of many gram positive bacteria TEICHOIC ACIDS
Inclusions of iron oxide MAGNETOSOMES
Metachromatic granules of stored phosphate in prokaryotes. VOLUTIN
Entrance of fluids and dissolved substances into eukaryotic cells PINOCYTOSIS
Membrane-enclosed spheres in phagocytic cells that contain powerful digestive enzymes. LYSOSOMES
The "powerhouses" of the cell MITOCHONDRIA
A gel-like fluid found in the eukaryotic nucleus NUCLEOPLASM
A folded inner membrane found in mitochondria CRISTAE
Sometimes contributes to movement of a cell. CYTOPLASMIC STREAMING
Arrangement of flagella distributed over the entire cell. PERITRICHOUS
A single flagellum at each end of the cell AMPHITRICHOUS
A widening at the base of the flagellar filament. HOOK
An enzyme affecting gram positive cell walls; found in tears LYSOZYME
A compound found in bacterial endospores DIPICOLINIC ACID
A compound frequently found in the cell walls of yeasts CHITIN
Closely involved in protein synthesis RIBOSOMES
Structures characteristic of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic plasma membranes PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
Found in the flagella and cilia of eukaryotic cells MICROTUBULES
Highly resistant bodies formed by a few bacterial species ENDOSPORES
Small circular DNA molecules that are not connected with the main chromosome PLASMIDS
The semifluid center portion of the mitochondrion MATRIX
A substance similar to peptidoglycan that is found in the cell wall of archaea PSEUDOMUREIN
Bacteria with irregular morphology PLEOMORPHIC
Extracellular polymeric substances on some bacterial cells; may help cells adhere to surfaces. GLYCOCALYX
Bacterial cell with thin peptidoglycan layer, outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide. GRAM NEGATIVE
Protein that forms fimbriae PILIN
Bundles of microtubules that probably play a role in cell division of eukaryotic cells CENTRIOLES
Bacteria that have lost their cell walls and may later spontaneously regain them. L-FORMS
ER associated with ribosomes ROUGH ER
Ingrowth of plasma membrane before endospore formation SEPTUM
Anchors the flagella of bacteria to the cell wall and plasma membrane. BASAL BODY
Chemically, the capsule is a _________, a polypeptide, or both. POLYSACCHARIDE
Capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from __________, a process by which protective host cells engulf and destroy microorganisms. PHAGOCYTOSIS
The Golgi complex consists of flattened sacs called _________ that are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. CISTERNS
The _____________ complex consists of four to eight flattened sacs connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. The function is largely secretion of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. GOLGI
The term ______________ means a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside. HYPOTONIC
Three examples of passive diffusion across membranes are _____________, _____________, and _______________. SIMPLE DIFFUSION, OSMOSIS, FACILITATED DIFFUSION
The protein in the flagellar filaments of bacteria is called ______________. FLAGELLIN
DNA in eukaryotic cells is combined with protein _____________ and nonhistones. HISTONES
What is glycocalyx? Glycocalyx is a sticky, viscous, gelatinous polymer that surrounds some bacterial cells. It may be composed of polysaccharide, polypeptide, or a combination of these two substances. It may be referred to as a slime layer or a capsule.
How is the presence of a glycocalyx related to bacterial virulence? The glycocalyx is associated with bacterial virulence because it helps protect the bacterium from phagocytosis by white blood cells and helps the bacterium to adhere to and colonize a host.
What substances are able to cross the plasma membrane most easily? Substances that dissolve most easily. These include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nonpolar organic molecules. Also, small molecules such as water.
Describe how a bacterial cell will respond to the following osmotic pressures: isotonic, hypotonic, hypertonic No change in isotonic, water leaves & enters at the same rate. Hypotonic will undergo osmotic lysis b/c more water will enter the cell than the cell can contain. Hypertonic, will undergo plasmolysis, loss of water due to increased solutes outside the cell
How is the presence of peptidoglycan in bacterial cells clinically significant? ABX such as PCN and the cephalosporins act specifically against peptidoglycan & therfore have low toxicity in humans. These drugs prevent the formation of the peptide cross-bridges of peptidoglycan preventing synthesis of a functional cell wall
Discuss the endosymbiont hypothesis. Is there any evidence to support the endosymbiont hypothesis? Evidence is seen in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Both organelles have 70S ribosomes the type seen in prokaryotic cells, Also, mitochondria and chloroplasts multiply and grow within eukaryotic cells
Created by: Micheleledet17