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Microbiology

Observing Microorganisms Through a Microscope

QuestionAnswer
The electrons pass through a thin section of the specimen TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
Visible light passes through the specimen; uses separate objective and ocular lenses. COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE
Details become visible because of differences in the refractive index of different parts of the cell. PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPE
Visible light is scattered after striking the specimen, and the specimen is visible against a darkened background. DARKFIELD MICROSCOPE
A special microscope using ultraviolet illumination. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPE
The electrons strike the surface of the specimen, and secondary electrons leaving the surface are viewed on a television-like screen SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
Pertaining to the relative velocities of light through a substance. REFRACTIVE INDEX
Involves the use of antibodies and ultraviolet light. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE
One millionth of a meter NANOMETER
One ten-billionth of a meter. ANGSTROM
The ability to separate two points in a microscope field. RESOLVING POWER
Adhere(s) best to bacteria, which have a negative charge, because the color molecule has a positive charge. BASIC DYES
Used in diagnosis of tuberculosis ACID-FAST STAIN
Involve(s) the use of a negative stain made from India ink particles. CAPSULE STAIN
Schaeffer-Fulton stain ENDOSPORE STAIN
Use(s) carbolfuchsin dye. ACID-FAST STAIN
Use(s) malachite green. ENDOSPORE STAIN
Reflect(s) a basic difference between microbial cell walls; ethanol will not remove stain from bacteria. GRAM STAIN
A microscope that uses laser illumination CONFOCAL
Extremely thin microbes, for example, the spirochete Treponema pallidum, are best seen with this type of light microscope. TRANSMISSION
This type of electron microscope yields images with seemingly three-dimensional views of the specimen. SCANNING
Light rays that pass through different portions of the specimen reach the eye with their wave-peaks reinforced or cancelled, making structures of the specimen relatively light or dark. PHASE CONTRAST
Formerly known as a micron MICROMETER
Formerly known as a millimicron NANOMETER
This is 10 the the -10th of a meter ANGSTROM
A billionth of a meter NANOMETER
About the highest magnification possible in a compound light microscope is ______________________ 2000
Immersion oil has about the same refractive index as ________________ GLASS
Fluorochrome dyes glow with visible light when illuminated by _________________________ light. ULTRAVIOLET
Electron wavelengths are only about 1/100,000 as long as visible light and therefore have much _______________ resolving power. (better, poorer) BETTER
Bacteria tend to have slightly __________ electrical charge. (positive, negative) NEGATIVE
The thin film of a microbial suspension spread on the surface of a slide is called a ________________. SMEAR
Flaming the slide before applying the stain is called ____________. FIXING
Transmission electron microscopy permits magnifications as high as about 10,000 times to _____________. 100,000 times
In the flagella stain, a _____________ is used to increase the diameter of the flagella. MORDANT
Two bacterial genera that are acid-fast are ____________ and _________________. MYCOBACTERIUM, NOCARDIA
A disease for which the acid-fast stain is useful in diagnosis is ____________. TUBERCULOSIS OR LEPROSY
In order to see shapes and arrangements of cells, a _____________ stain is usually sufficient. SIMPLE
_______________ dyes have a negative color ion. (acidic, basic) ACIDIC
The equation that describes the resolving power (RP) of a microscope is RP=wavelength of illumination/2 X Numerical Aperture. If the wavelength of light is 0.52 um, what is the resolving power? Numerical aperture of an oil immersion object is usually 1.30 About 0.2 um
What type of microscopy would be most appropriate to identify pathogenic bacteria in clinical specimens? FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY
What type of microscopy would be most appropriate to view objects smaller than 0.2 um, such as viruses? ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
What type of microscopy would be most appropriate to view heat-fixed, stained bacterial cells? BRIGHTFIELD MICROSCOPY
What type of microscopy would be most appropriate to view microorganisms that can't be stained by standard methods, such as Treponema pallidum? DARKFIELD MICROSCOPY
What type of microscopy would be most appropriate to view the internal structure of living microorganisms? PHASE-CONTRAST MICROSCOPY
What stain or technique would be most appropriate to detect bacterial capsules and evaluate an organism's virulence? A NEGATIVE STAIN USING INDIA INK OR NIGROSIN. IT STAINS THE BACKGROUND BUT DOESN'T PENETRATE THE CAPSULE. THE CAPSULE SHOWS UP AS A HALO SURROUNDING THE CELL AGAINST A DARK BACKGROUND
What stain or technique would be most appropriate to provide the necessary contrast for viewing specimens with a compound light microscope A SIMPLE STAIN SUCH AS SAFRANIN OR METHYLENE BLUE WILL WORK FINE
What stain or technique would be most appropriate to diagnose infections of Mycobacterium or Nocardia? ACID-FAST STAINING WOULD BE APPROPRIATE. THE RED DYE, CARBOLFUCHSIN, BINDS STRONGLY TO A WAXY SUBSTANCE IN THE CELL WALL OF THESE ORGANISMS BUT NOT TO OTHER NONACID FAST BACTERIA
What stain or technique would be most appropriate to help determine what antibiotic will be most effective against a certain disease organism? THE GRAM STAINING REACTION IS HELPFUL INFORMATION WHEN CHOOSING AN ANTIBIOTIC, WHICH OFTEN SHOWS SPECIFICITY FOR EITHER GRAM+ OR GRAM- BACTERIA.
Why do gram positive cells retain the crystal violet through the alcohol wash of Gram staining, whereas gram negative cells do not? WHEN IODINE IS ADDED TO A SMEAR AFTER PREVIOUS STAINING WITH CRYSTAL VIOLET THEY COMBINE TO FORM A COMPLEX THAT IS LARGER THAN THE CRYSTAL VIOLET MOLECULE THAT INITIALLY ENTERED THE CELLS. IT IS TOO LARGE TO BE WASHED OUT.
Created by: Micheleledet17