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Asexual & Sexual Reproduction, Male & Female Reproductive Systems

DNA Found in the nucleus of every body cell
DNA stands for Deoxyribnucleic Acid
Genes Short segments of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait
Chromosome DNA that is organized and packaged
Sister Chromatid Two identical chromosomes that are fully condensed and attached by a centromere
Karyotype Is the number of chromosomes seen in the cell of an organisms of a species
Autosomes All chromosomes but sex chromosomes
Allosomes Sex chromosomes
Number of Human Chromosomes 46
Mitosis Cellular division that results in two identical daughter cells
Interphase The resting phase of a cell where the DNA is unraveled
Prophase Chromosomes condense and the envelope disappears
Metaphase The chromosomes lines up alone the middle
Anaphase Chromosomes move to the opposite poles
Telophase Nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes
Cytokinesis Cytoplasm splits two new identical cells
Cytokinesis in Animal Cells Cleavage furrow
Cytokinesis in Plant Cells Cell Plate
Binary Fission A single cell undergoes mitosis that results in two identical cells
Ex Organisms of Binary Fission Amoeba & Bacteria
Budding When mitosis results in unequal size cells created
Ex Organisms of Budding Yeast & Hydras
Sporulation Using spores to spread their daughter cells
Spores Special reproductive cells
Ex of Sporulation Organisms Plants & Fungi, bread mold
Regeneration The ability for some organisms to grow from pieces of another one
Ex of Regeneration Organisms Starfish, Hydras, & Planarian
Vegetative Propagation Cutting a part of a plant and allowing it to grow into a new plant that is genetically identical
Ex of Vegetative Propagation Organisms Plants
Female gametes Eggs
Male gametes Sperm
Gametes Sex cells
Sexual Reproduction Creation of a new organism by combining the genetic information of two parents
Body Cells Somatic Cells
Sex cells 23 chromosomes, only half the amount of DNA
Homologous Pairs Chromosomes that have the same genes at the same loci but it could possibly code for different alleles
Diploid 2n, 46 chromosomes
Haploid n, 23 chromosomes
Meiosis Is a process where the cell divides twice to form four new cells that have half the amount of genetic material than the original cell
Gametogenesis Gametes produced by meiosis that occur in the gonads
Oogenesis Production of eggs in the ovaries, 1 egg & 3 polar bodies
Spermatogenesis Production of sperm in the testes, 4 sperms
Ovaries Production of eggs & hormones estrogen & progesterone
Fallopian Tubes / Oviduct Connects the ovaries and the uterus, fertilization occurs here
Uterus The uterine wall fills up with blood & tissue in preparation for a fertilized egg
Cervix Neck of the uterus, becomes dilated during pregnancy
Vagina Connects external genitalia to the internal
Sperm The male sex cell or gamete
Testes Male gonad that produces sperm & testosterone
Scrotum External pouch that surrounds the testes
Vas Deferens Transports the sperm from the testes to the urethra
Prostate An organ that surrounds the urethra that secretes a fluid that makes up part of the semen
Semen Enhances motility and fertility of the sperm
Penis Inserts the semen into the female reproductive system
Menstrual Cycle A series of changes controlled by hormones that help prepare the female uterus for a possible pregnancy
FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone
LH Luteinizing Hormone
Stage 1 Follicle Stage
Stage 2 Ovulation
Stage 3 Corpus Luteum
Stage 4 Menstruation
Fertilization Fusion of a haploid egg and sperm to produce a diploid zygote
Where does fertilization occur Fallopian tubes / oviducts
External Fertilization Eggs fertilized outside the female body
Internal Fertilization Fertilization occurs inside the female body
Cleavage Converts a single - celled zygote into an embryo
Morula A solid ball of cells resulting from the cellular division of a fertilized egg
Blastula A hollow structure in early embryonic development; inner = embryo, outer = placenta
Gatrula An embryo when it has a hollow cup-shaped structure that begins to differentiate
Gastrulation Formation of embryonic germ layers
Ectoderm Outermost layer, becomes the nervous and skin
Mesoderm Middle layer, becomes connective tissue, muscle, bone, urogenital, & circulatory system
Endoderm Innermost layer, becomes gastrointestinal tract, lungs and associated structures
Placenta Exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste between mother and child
Umbilical Cord Transports substances between fetus and placenta
Amniotic Fluid Cushions and protects the fetus
Fraternal Twins Develops when the woman produces two eggs and each is fertilized by two different sperm
Identical Twins An egg fertilized by one sperm splits to form two zygotes
Conjoined Twins Zygotes of identical twins fail to separate completely
Created by: CMacKay16
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