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Human Biology Review

ConceptExplanation
Cell Basic unit of structure and function in a living thing
Nucleus Controls the cell's activities
Cardiac muscle Found in the heart
Melanin Gives skin its pigment
Follicles Hair grows from these
Spongy bone Has many holes and makes bone lightweight
Skeletal muscle Has striations and is voluntary
Ball and socket joint Hip and shoulder
Smooth muscle Involuntary muscle found in stomach
Hinge Joint Knee and elbow
Epidermis Layer of skin that has dead cells
Dermis Layer of skin that has nerves and BV
Connective tissue Ligaments and tendons
Organ Made of different kinds of tissue
Tissue Made of the same kinds of cells that have the same job
Homeostasis Maintaining balance in the body
Marrow Red and yellow are examples of this
Pores Sweat leaves the skin through these
Osteoporosis When bones are weak and can break
Sprain When ligaments tear
How the body is organized from smallest to largest Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
Functions of the skeleton a. provides shape and support b. enables you to move c. protects your organs d. produces blood cells e. stores minerals and other materials until your body needs them
Ligaments Strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints
Cartilage A connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together
Calcium Important mineral bones need to stay healthy and strong
What can you do to keep your bones healthy? 1. well-balanced diet 2. exercise.
Hair follicles found on _______ layer of skin. dermis
Major difference between an MRI and an X ray 1. X-ray = shows bones as clearly defined white areas 2. MRI = shows images of body tissues, muscles, and other soft tissues that an X-ray image cannot show.
Reason your backbone consists of many vertebrae as opposed to one large bone If your backbone were just one bone, you would not be able to bend or twist. The vertebra, 26 small bones, adjust as you move.
Difference between ligaments and tendons 1. Ligaments = Strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints 2. Tendons = Strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
Different parts of bone Outer membrane, compact bone, spongy bone, bone marrow
Function of Skin 1: Protecting the Body a. forming a barrier that keeps disease-causing microorganisms and harmful substances outside the body b. helps keep important substances inside the body
Function of Skin 2: Maintaining Temperature a. When you become too warm, blood vessels enlarge and the amount of blood that flows through them increases. These changes allow heat to move from your body into the outside. b. sweat glands in the skin respond to excess heat by producing perspiration.
Function of Skin 3: Eliminating Wastes Perspiration contains dissolved waste materials that come from the breakdown of chemicals during cellular processes.
Function of Skin 4: Gathering Information The nerves in skin provide information about such things as pressure, pain, and temperature.
Function of Skin 5: Producing Vitamin D a. Skin cells produce vitamin D in the presence of sunlight. b. Vitamin D is important for healthy bones because it helps the cells in your digestive system to absorb the calcium in your food.
Created by: mstanislavsky