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Exam #2

Biol 232

What is the organization of cells to perform a similar function Tissue
What are the four categories of tissues Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissue
This covers the outside of the body Epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue lines what? organs and cavities
What is the difference between stratified and pseudostratified epithelial tissue? Pseudo is a single layer of cells with varying lengths
85% of what arise in epithelial tissue all cancers
composed of cells whose origin or developmental lineage is unknown but possess certain specific molecular, cellular, and histological characteristics typical of epithelial cells Carcinomas
This binds and supports other tissues and are loosely packed Connective tissue
What are the three types of connective tissue fibers collagenous, elastic, and reticular
These provide strength and flexibility Collagenous fibers
These stretch and snap back to their original length Elastic fibers
These join connective tissue to adjacent tissues Reticular fibers
This binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place Loose connective tissue
This is strong and flexible support material Cartilage
These are found in tendons and ligaments fibrous connective tissue
These attach muscles to bones Tendons
These connect bones at joints Ligaments
These store fat for insulation and fuel Adipose tissue
This is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma (liquid matrix) Blood
This forms the skeleton Bone
These are 1% of all cancers that arise in bone or soft tissue sarcomas
These are 7% of all cancers which arise in the lymphatic system Lymphomas
This consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals muscle tissue
Muscle tissue contains what for contraction actin & myosin
Striated muscle responsible for voluntary movement Skeletal
Muscle responsible for involuntary body activities Smooth
Muscle responsible for contraction of the heart Cardiac
This senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal Nervous tissue
Nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses Neurons
These help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons Glial cells
These are often tied in with muscular disorders (neuromuscular) Gliomas
ALS, MS, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, MDD, and CWD are all issues associated with what ? Gliomas
They use internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation regulator
They allow their internal conditions to vary with certain external changes conformer
To moderate changes in the internal environment Homeostasis
Fluctuations above or below a set point serve as what ? a stimulus
A stimulus is detected by a _______ and trigger a ______ sensor, response
This is where buildup of the end product shuts the system off negative feedback
These occur but do not usually contribute to homeostasis Positive feedback loops
the body temp of a ____________ varies with its environment poikilotherm
Insulation, circ. adaptations, cooling by evaporative heat loss, behavioral responses, and adj. metabolic heat prod. help animals do what? thermoregulate
what are two ways to adjust metabolic heat production ? shivering & non-shivering thermogenesis
Thermoregulation is controlled by the what ? hypothalamus
This triggers heat loss or heat generating mechanisms hypothalamus
This is change to the set point for a biological thermostat fever
Arterioles dilate (enlarge) so more blood enters skin capillaries and heat is lost vasodilation
Sudorific glands secrete sweat which removes heat when water changes state sweating
This means the hairs flatten pilorelaxation
By opening up, the body becomes a larger surface area stretching out
Arterioles get smaller to reduce blood going to skin: keeping core warm Vasoconstriction
Rapid contraction and relaxing of skeletal muscles. Heat produced by respiration Shivering
Hairs on skin stand up Piloerection
Making yourself smaller so there's a smaller surface area Curling up
What is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time metabolic rate
What is one way to measure metabolic rate? determine the amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced
What is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at "normal" temp basal
What is the metabolic rate of an ectoderm at rest at a specific temp standard
What is the state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases torpor
What is long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity hibernation
What is summer torpor which enables animals to survive long periods of high temps and scarce water supplies Estivation
Which animals endure estivation ? small mammals and birds
These animals have a body wall that is only two cells thick and encloses a gastrovascular cavity Diploblastic (cnidarians)
which animals have open circulatory systems arthropods and most molluscs
Which animals have closed circulatory systems all vertebrates
______ and _______ have circulatory fluid, set of tubes (blood vessels), and a muscular pump (heart) open and closed systems
Within the coelom, this is a system of canals and specialized tube feet that function in locomotion and food gathering, plus resp. and excretion water-vascular system
What has either ring canals or radial canals depending on the organism water-vascular system
These are tiny branching tubes that penetrate the body and supply oxygen directly to body cells tracheal system
This is when blood leaving the heart passes through 2 capillary beds before returning single circulation
Bony fishes, rays, and sharks all have what single circulation
This is when oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right & left sides of the heart double circulation
This is when blood flows in the opp. direction to water passing over the gills; blood is always less saturated with O2 than the water it meets countercurrent gas exchange
Which animals have 2 atria and 1 ventricle amphibians & reptiles
Which animals have 2 atria and 2 ventricles with no mixing mammals
Which animals have a ridge in their ventricle which helps to divert blood in the 'right' direction amphibians
Which animals have a septum that is partially divided reptiles
Which reptile has a complete septum that divides the ventricle crocodile
These type of animals' blood is the same as interstitial fluid invertebrates (hemolymphs)
Blood in the circulatory systems of vertebrates is a specialized ______________ connective tissue
These are proteins that transport oxygen and greatly increase the amount of oxygen that blood can carry respiratory pigments
Arthopods and many molluscs have _________ w/copper as the oxygen-binding component (blue when w/O2) hemocyanin
Most vertebrates and some invertebrates use ______________ contained with erythrocytes hemoglobin
How many hemoglobin molecules can carry 4 molecules of O2 only one
When CO2 produced during cellular respiration lowers blood pH and decreases the affinity of hemoglobin for O2, this is called the what ? Bohr shift
Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets all develop from a common source of ________ in the red marrow of bones stem cells
Which hormone stimulates erythrocyte production when oxygen delivery is low erythropoietin (EPO)
This is the process of removing a pint of blood 10-14 days before a race, centrifuging it, returning the plasma, freezing RBC and re-injecting the blood to increase RBC blood doping
What does blood doping do for racers increase aerobic capacity and endurance
When was the first sign of drug use 1904
The critical exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid takes place _____ the thin endothelial walls of the capillaries across
The goal of the __________ is to return fluid that leaks out in the capillary beds and also aids in body defense lymphatic system
What are organs that filter lymph (fluid) and play an important role in the body's defense lymph nodes
These are packed in more into muscles Myoglobin
Myoglobin does what to meat gives it its red color
The __________ not only prevent nitrogen from exchanging with the blood, but also prevents oxygen from equilibrating as well pulmonary shunts
This regulates solute concentrations and balances the gain and loss of water Osmoregulation
These are isoosmotic with their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity osmoconformers
These expend energy to control water uptake and loss in a hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic environment Osmoregulators
Most marine inverts, sea squirts, hagfish (only vert.), and cartiligenous fish are what osmoconformers
Which animal maintains very high concentration of solutes and urea in body and does not have to drink water sharks
Most marine verts, such as bony fish are what osmoregulators
Which type of animals constantly take in water by osmosis from their hypoosmotic environment freshwater
FW aquatic inverts in __________: dump all body water and survive in a dormant state vernal ponds
What is the name of the state that vernal pond aquatic animals survive in ? anhydrobiosis
80-90% waste by fish is __________, the rest is __________ ammonia, urea
Conversion to _______ is energetically expensive; saves water, less toxic urea
ammonia stored 95% as ________ which is toxic: it raises blood pH, can substitute for K+ in trans. chains, and destabilizes proteins NH4+
Which animals cannot use NH4+ ? fish out of water
This is more expensive than urea but most of the amount of water is saved uric acid
This is pressure-filtering of body fluids filtration
This is the process of reclaiming valuable solutes reabsorption
This is the process of adding toxins and other solutes from the body fluids to the filtrate secretion
This is the process of removing the filtrate from the system excretion
This is the network of dead-end tubules connected to external openings protonephridium
These are components of a ___________: internal opening, collecting tubule, bladder, and external opening metanephridium
This is the functional unit of the vertebrate kidney that consists of a single long tubule and the glomerulus nephron
What is the ball of capillaries called glomerulus
This surrounds and receives filtrate from the glomerulus Bowman's capsule
This increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Mutation in ADH production causes severe dehydration and results in what ? diabetes insipidus
What are some examples of diuretics? alcohol and coffee
___________ is closely related to oxytocin. Males in some species have life-long attachment triggered by a release of this Vasopressin
Males have a longer-than-normal gene segment for ________ which is correlated with monogamy practice vasopressin
This secretes hormones and has slower but longer-acting responses Endocrine system
This regulates reproduction, development, energy metabolism, growth, and behavior endocrine system
This conveys high-speed electrical signals along specialized cells (neurons) nervous system
What chemical signals besides hormones and endocrine signals are secreted? Neurotransmitters, neurohormones, and pheromones
These have ducts and secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities such as tear ducts and salivary glands exocrine signals
These play a role in sensation, memory, cognition, and movement neurotransmitters
This is a class of hormones that originate from neurons in the brain and diffuse through the bloodstream neurohormones
ADH, epinephrine (adrenaline), and drugs used for athletic cheating are all forms of what ? neurohormones
These are chemical signals that are released from the body and used to communicate with other individuals in the species pheromones
Hormones that pass easily through cell membranes are: lipid-soluble
Hormones that do not pass easily through cell membranes are: water-soluble
What hormones are lipid soluble? steroids
What hormones are water-soluble? polypeptides and amines
Solubility of a hormone correlates with the location of receptors where around target cells? inside or on the surface of target cells
The same hormone may have different effects on target cells that have what? different receptors and signal transduction pathways
A __________________ inhibits a response by reducing the initial stimulus and regulates many hormonal pathways involved in homeostasis negative feedback loop
what two antagonistic hormones maintain glucose homeostasis insulin and glucagon
This receives info from the nervous system and initiates responses through the endocrine system Hypothalamus
What is attached to the hypothalamus and is composed of the posterior and anterior pituitary pituitary gland
This stores and secretes hormones that are made in the hypothalamus posterior pituitary
This makes and releases hormones under regulation of the hypothalamus anterior pituitary
These stimulate metabolism and influence development & maturation thyroid hormones
This causes excessive secretion of thyroid hormones, high body temp, weight loss, irritability, and high blood pressure hyperthyroidism
This causes low secretion of thyroid hormones, weight gain, lethargy, and intolerance to cold hypothyroidism
This is a form of hypothyroidism goiters
What causes goiters? iodine deficiency
These trigger the release of glucose and fatty acids into the blood, increases oxygen delivery to body cells, and direct blood towards heart, brain, and skeletal muscles epinephrine and norepinephrine
Epinephrine and norepinephrine also direct blood away from what three body components? skin, digestive system, and kidneys
what are the sex hormones that gonads, testes, and ovaries produce? androgens, estrogens, and progestins
These are secreted by exocytosis, travel freely in the bloodstream, and bind to cell-surface receptors water-soluble hormones
These diffuse across cell membranes, travel in the bloodstream bound by transport proteins, and diffuse through the membrane of target cells lipid-soluble hormones
This controls metabolism in most critters, and metamorphosis in frogs (tail resorption) Thyroxine
In simple hormone pathways, hormones are released from an __________ cell, travel through the _________, and interact w/ the receptor or a target cell to cause a __________ response endocrine cell, bloodstream, physiological
Endocrine cells within the pancreas are called __________ islets of Langerhans
Pancreas involves alpha cells that produce _____ and beta cells that produce _________ glucagon, insulin
ADH is released where? in the kidney tubules
Oxytocin is released where? in the mammary glands and uterine muscles
This is released by the posterior pituitary gland and regulated by the nervous system Oxytocin
This stimulates contraction of uterus and mammary gland cells Oxytocin
This is released by the posterior pituitary gland and regulated by water/salt balance ADH
This promotes retention of water by kidneys ADH
This is involved with the anterior pituitary gland and regulated by hypothalamic hormones (posterior) Growth hormone (GH)
This stimulates growth (especially bones) and metabolic functions GH
What is a form of hyperthyroidism? Graves' disease
These raise blood glucose level, increase metabolic activities, and constrict certain blood vessels Epinephrine and norepinephrine
the epidermis is derived from what tissue layer? ectoderm
the lining of the gastrointestinal tract is derived from what tissue layer? endoderm
the inner linings of the body cavities are derived from what tissue layer? mesoderm
These are ectotherms who experience fluctuations in temperature poikilotherms
what animals are poikilotherms? fish, reptiles, amphibians, and naked mole rats
These are endotherms who maintain a constant temp through internal or behavioral mechanisms homeotherms
What animals are homeotherms? turtles & snakes
These switch between being an endotherm or an ectotherm and endure hibernation heterotherms
what animals are heterothermic? humming birds, bats, and bears
What animals breathe by drawing water in through the anus and then expelling it? sea cucumbers
This is responsible for digestion and substance circulation gastrovascular cavity
What type of circulatory system do echinoderms have? water-vascular system
What kind of circulatory system do insects have? tracheal system
in double circulation, which side of the heart is oxygen poor? right
in double circulation, which side of the heart is oxygen rich? left
An amphibian uses simple ____ pressure breathing, which forces air down the trachea positive
Mammals ventilate their lungs by ______ pressure breathing, which pulls air into the lungs negative
Which respiratory pigment is bright red when with oxygen and dark red/purple when without oxygen ? Hemoglobin
Which respiratory pigment is blue when with oxygen and colorless when without oxygen? hemocyanin
Which respiratory pigment is pink when with oxygen and colorless when without oxygen? haemerythrin
Which respiratory pigment is green when with oxygen and red when without oxygen? chlorocruorin
Molluscs such as lobsters and horseshoe crabs and some arthropods such as tarantulas and scorpions have which respiratory pigment? hemocyanin
Marine inverts and only one marine annelid have which respiratory pigment? haemerythrin
Nearly all annelids except one have which respiratory pigment? chlorocruorin
Created by: tparker31
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