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Biology chapt 12

Biology chapter 12

adenine (A) One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA. Pairs with uracil (U) and thymine (T).
guanine (G) One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine.
thymine (T) One of four nitrogen-containing bases in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA; pairs with adenine.
cytosine (C) One of four nitrogen-containing bases in the nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and RNA; pairs with guanine.
double helix Double spiral; describes the threedimensional shape of DNA.
complementary base pairing Hydrogen bonding between particular purines and pyrimidines; responsible for the structure of DNA, and some RNA, molecules.
DNA replication Synthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotic cells and during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic cells.
template Parental strand of DNA that serves as a guide for the complementary daughter strand produced during DNA replication.
semiconservative replication Process of DNA replication that results in two double helix molecules, each having one parental and one new strand.
DNA helicase Enzyme unwinds DNA and separates the parental stands.
String-standed binging proteins (SSB) Attach to newly seprated DNA and prevent it form re-forming tha helix so replication can occur.
DNA Primase Places short primers on the strands to be replicated.
DNA ligase Enzyme that links DNA fragments; used during production of recombinant DNA to join foreign DNA to vector DNA.
replication fork In eukaryotic DNA replication, the location where the two parental DNA strands separate.
uracil (U) Pyrimidine base that occurs in RNA, replacing thymine.
messenger RNA (mRNA) Type of RNA formed from a DNA template and bearing coded information for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
transfer RNA (tRNA) Type of RNA that transfers a particular amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis; at one end it binds to the amino acid, and at the other end it has an anticodon that binds to an mRNA codon.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Structural form of RNA found in the ribosomes.
transcription First stage of gene expression; process whereby a DNA strand serves as a template for the formation of mRNA.
translation During gene expression, the process whereby ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to produce a polypeptide with a particular sequence of amino acids.
central dogma Processes that dictate the flow of information from the DNA to RNA to protein in a cell.
genetic code Universal code that has existed for eons and allows for conversion of DNA and RNA’s chemical code to a sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each codon consists of three bases that stand for one of the 20 amino acids found in proteins.
triplet code During gene expression, each sequence of three nucleotide bases stands for a particular amino acid
codon Three-base sequence in messenger RNA that during translation directs the addition of a particular amino acid into a protein or directs termination of the process.
rNA polymerase During transcription, an enzyme that creates an mRNA transcript by joining nucleotides complementary to a DNA template.
promoter In an operon, a sequence of DNA where RNA polymerase binds prior to transcription.
mRNA transcript mRNA molecule formed during transcription that has a sequence of bases complementary to a gene.
exon Segment of mRNA containing the proteincoding portion of a gene that remains within the mRNA after splicing has occurred.
intron Intervening sequence found between exons in mRNA; removed by RNA processing before translation.
ribozyme RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme that can catalyze chemical reactions.
anticodon Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA.
polyribosome String of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis.
initiation First stage of translation in which the translational machinery binds an mRNA and assembles.
elongation Middle stage of translation in which additional amino acids specified by the mRNA are added to the growing polypeptide.
termination End of translation that occurs when a ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA that it is translating, causing release of the completed protein.
proteomics Study of the complete collection of proteins that a cell or organism expresses.
Created by: Haleyannestes
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