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9th ENV SCI Ch 9.1

9th ENV SCI Ch 9.1 studying human population

DEMOGRAPHY __________ is the study of the characteristics of populations, especially human populations.
SIZE MAKEUP Demographers study the historical ____ and ______ of the populations of countries to make comparisons and predictions.
PROPERTIES Demographers also study _________ that affect population growth, such as economics and social structure.
DEVELOPED DEVELOPING Countries with similar population trends are often grouped into two categories: _______ and __________ countries.
DEVELOPED ___________ countries have higher average incomes, slower population growth, diverse industrial economies, and stronger social support systems.
DEVELOPING _____________ countries have lower average incomes, simple and agriculture-based economics, and rapid population growth.
1800s The human population underwent exponential growth in the ____ _ meaning that the population growth rates increased during each decade.
FOOD These increases were mostly due to increases in _____ production and improvements in hygiene that came with industrial and scientific revolution.
SUSTAIN However, it is likely that the Earth can _________ this growth for much longer.
AGE STRUCTURE __ __________ is the classification of members of a population into groups according to age or the distribution of members of a population in terms of age groups and helps demographers make predictions.
YOUNG Countries that have high rates of growth usually have more _____ people than older people.
SLOW POPULATION PYRAMID In contrast, countries that have ____ growth or no growth usually have an even distribution of ages in the population. Age structure can be graphed in a _________ ________ a type of double sided bar graph.
SURVIVORSHIP _______________ is the percentage of newborn individuals in a population that can be expected to survive to a given age.
TRENDS It is used as another way to predict population ______
GROUP To predict survivorship, demographers study a _____ of people born at the same time and notes when each member of the group dies.
GRAPH The results of these studies are then plotted on a _____ and might look like on of the types of survivorship graphs below.
TYPE 1 Wealthy developed countries such as Japan and Germany currently have a ____ _ survivorship curve because most people live to be very old.
TYPE 2 _____ ___ populations have similar death rate at all ages.
TYPE 3 ____ ___ survivorship is the pattern in which many offsprings die.
SLOWLY Both Type 1 and Type 3 may result in populations that remain the same size or grow _______.
FERTILITY RATE A ______ ________ is the number of births (usually per year) per 1,000 women of childbearing age (usually 15 to 44)
1972 In _____ the total fertility dropped below replacement level for the first time in US history.
GROWING Fertility rates remained below replacement level for most of the 1990's, but recently has been ______ partly because the children of the baby boom grew up and had children.
MIGRATION ________ in general, is any movement of individuals or populations from one location to another.
IMMIGRATION EMIGRATION Movement into an area is _______ and movement out of an area is _________.
DECREASING The populations of many developed countries might be __________ if not for immigration.
DEATH RATES The dramatic increase in Earth's human population in the last 200 years has happened because ______ ____ have declined more rapidly than birth rates.
CLEAN WATER Death rates have declined mainly because more people now have access to adequate food, _____ ____, and safe sewage disposal.
LIFE EXPECTANCY _________ ___________ is the average length of time that an individual is expected to live.
INFANT MORTALITY Life expectancy is most affected by ______ _______ the death rate of infants less than a year old.
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION The ____________ ___________ is the general pattern of demographic change from birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, and observed in the history of more-developed countries.
INDUSTRIAL The theory behind the demographic transition is that __________ development causes economic and social progress that then affects population growth rates.
ONE THREE It can take from ___ to ___ generations for the demographic transition to occur.
EDUCATION The factors most clearly related to a decline in birth rates are increasing ________ and economic independence for women.
LOWER In the demographic transition model, the ________ death rate of the second stage is usually the result of increased levels of education.
EDUCATED ____________ women find that they do not need to bear as many chirlden to ensure that some will surive. They may also learn family planning techniques.
LOWER All of these reasons contribute to ______ birth rates in both developed and developing countries,
Created by: asimien907



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