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Chapter 3

cells and heredity

TermDefinition
Heredity the passing of traits from parents to off spring
Trait a specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its offspring through genes
Genetics the scientific study of heredity
Fertilization the process in sexual reproduction which an egg cell and sperm cell join to form a new cell
Purebread an offspring of many generations that has the same form of traits
Gene a sequence of DNA that determines a trait and is passed from parent to offspring
Allele The different forms of a gene
Dominate Allele An allele whose traits always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
Recessive Allele an allele that is hidden whenever the dominate allele is present
Hybrid An offspring of crosses that has two different alleles for a trait
Probability A number that describes the likely hood it is that a particular event will ocour
Punnett Square A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Phenotype AN organisms physical appearance or visible trait
Genotype an organisms genetic makeup, or allele combitnations
Homozygous having two identical alleles for a particular gene
Heterzygous having two different alleles for a particular gene
incomplete dominance a situation in which one allele is not completely dominate over another allele
codominance a situation in which both alleles for a gene are expressed equally
multiple alleles three or more possible alleles of a gene that determines trait
polygenic inheritance the inheritance of traits that are controlled by two or more gene, such as height in humans
meiosis the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells (sperm and egg)which the number chromosomes is reduced by half
Created by: jac201020918