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Biology chapt 11

Biology chapter 11

TermDefinition
monohybrid cross Cross between parents that differ in only one trait.
locus Physical location of a trait (or gene) on a chromosome.
dominant allele Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect in the heterozygote; it masks the expression of the recessive allele.
recessive allele Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the homozygote; its expression is masked by a dominant allele
homozygous Possessing two identical alleles for a particular trait.
heterozygous Possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait.
genotype Genes of an organism for a particular trait or traits; often designated by letters—for example, BB or Aa.
phenotype Visible expression of a genotype—e.g., brown eyes or attached earlobes.
dihybrid cross Cross between parents that differ in two traits.
punnett square Visual representation developed by Reginald Punnett that is used to calculate the expected results of simple genetic crosses.
testcross Cross between an individual with a dominant phenotype and an individual with a recessive phenotype to determine whether the dominant individual is homozygous or heterozygous.
autosome Chromosome pairs that are the same between the sexes; in humans, all but the X and Y chromosomes
carrier Heterozygous individual who has no apparent abnormality but can pass on an allele for a recessively inherited genetic disorder.
multiple alleles Inheritance pattern in which there are more than two alleles for a particular trait; each individual has only two of all possible alleles.
codominance Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally expressed in a heterozygote.
incomplete dominance Inheritance pattern in which an offspring has an intermediate phenotype, as when a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-flowered offspring.
incomplete penetrance Dominant alleles that are either not always or partially expressed.
pleiotropy Inheritance pattern in which one gene affects many phenotypic characteristics of the individual.
polygenic inheritance Pattern of inheritance in which a trait is controlled by several allelic pairs.
x-linked Allele that is located on an X chromosome; not all X-linked genes code for sexual characteristics.
hemizygous Possessing only one allele for a gene in a diploid organism; males are hemizygous for genes on the X chromosome.
Created by: Haleyannestes
 

 



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