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Biology chapt 10

Biology chapter 10

TermDefinition
meiosis Type of nuclear division that reduces the chromosome number from 2n to n; daughter cells receive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations.
diploid (2n) Cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present.
haploid (n) Cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present.
gamete Haploid sex cell; e.g., egg or sperm.
sexual reproduction Reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization; produces offspring with chromosomes inherited from each parent with a unique combination of genes.
zygote Diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the product of fertilization.
homologous chromosome (homologue) Member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division; a homologue.
allele Alternative form of a gene; alleles occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
synaptonemal complex Protein structure that forms between the homologous chromosomes of prophase I of meiosis; promotes the process of crossing-over.
synapsis Pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I.
bivalent Homologous chromosomes, each having sister chromatids that are joined by a nucleoprotein lattice during meiosis; also called a tetrad.
crossing-over Exchange of segments between nonsister chromatids of a bivalent during meiosis.
genetic recombination Process in which chromosomes are broken and rejoined to form novel combinations; in this way, offspring receive alleles in combinations different from their parents.
independent assortment Alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently of each other during meiosis, so that the gametes can contain all possible combinations of alleles.
fertilization Fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote that develops into a new individual.
interkinesis Period of time between meiosis I and meiosis II during which no DNA replication takes place.
life cycle Recurring pattern of genetically programmed events by which individuals grow, develop, maintain themselves, and reproduce.
gametophyte Haploid generation of the alternation-of-generations life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote.
sporophyte Diploid generation of the alternation-of-generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation.
gametogenesis Development of the male and female sex gametes.
spermatogenesis Production of sperm in males by the process of meiosis and maturation.
oogenesis Production of eggs in females by the process of meiosis and maturation.
secondary oocyte In oogenesis, the functional product of meiosis I; becomes the egg.
polar body Nonfunctional product of oogenesis produced by the unequal division of cytoplasm in females during meiosis; in humans three of the four cells produced by meiosis are polar bodies.
nondisjunction Failure of the homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during either mitosis or meiosis; produces cells with abnormal chromosome numbers.
euploidy Condition in which a cell contains the correct number, and combinations, of chromosomes.
aneuploidy Condition in which a cell does not contain the correct number, or combinations, of chromosomes.
monosomy Chromosome condition in which a diploid cell has one less chromosome than normal; designated as 2n-1.
trisomy Chromosome condition in which a diploid cell has one more chromosome than normal; designated as 2n + 1.
karyotype Chromosomes arranged by pairs according to their size, shape, and general appearance in mitotic metaphase.
Barr body Dark-staining body in the cell nuclei of female mammals that contains a condensed, inactive X chromosome; named after its discoverer, Murray Barr.
deletion Change in chromosome structure in which the end of a chromosome breaks off or two simultaneous breaks lead to the loss of an internal segment; often causes abnormalities—e.g., cri du chat syndrome.
duplication Change in chromosome structure in which a particular segment is present more than once in the same chromosome.
translocation Movement of a chromosomal segment from one chromosome to another nonhomologous chromosome, leading to abnormalities—e.g., Down syndrome.
Created by: Haleyannestes