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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 11

genetics the scientific study of heredity
fertilization during sexual reproduction, male and female reproductive cells join
true-breeding (pea plants) if allowed to self-pollinate, they would produce offspring identical to themselves
trait a specific characteristic, such as a seed color or plant height
hybrids the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
genes the chemical factors that determine traits
alleles different forms of a gene
segregation separation
gametes sex cells of a plant
probability the likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett square a diagram that shows the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
homozygous organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait
phenotype physical characteristics
genotype genetic makeup
independent assortment alleles for seed shape segregated independently of those for seed color
incomplete dominance one allele is not completely dominant over another
codominance both alleles contribute to the phenotype
multiple alleles genes that have more than two alleles
polygenic traits traits controlled by two or more genes
homologous each of the 4 chromosomes that came from the male parent has a corresponding chromosome from the female parent
diploid a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
haploid a single set of chromosomes and only a single set of genes
meisois a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a dipoid cell.
tetrad in prophase of meiosis I, each chromosome pairs with its corresponding homologous chromosome
crossing-over a process in which the tetrads exchange portions of their chromatids
gene map shows the relative locations of each known gene on one of the chromosomes of an organism
Created by: Winkels