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Chapter 39

Confusion and Dementia

QuestionAnswer
Changes in the _____________ and nervous system occur with aging. Brain
Memory, thinking, reasoning, ability to understand, judgement, and behavior are all part of ________________ function. Cognitive
Diseases, infection, hearing and vision loss, and medication side effects are some causes of ____________________. Confusion
Brain _______________ can be a cause of confusion. Injury
With aging, blood supply to the _______________ is reduced resulting in personality and mental changes. Brain
Memory and the ability to make good _______________ can be lost as one ages. Judgments
A person with confusion may not know _____________, the time, or the place they are at. People
Some person gradually use the ability to ______________ daily activities. Perform
Acute confusion occurs _______________. Suddenly
Causes of acute confusion can be _________________, illness, injury, medications, and surgery. Infection
What is the loss of cognitive function that interferes with routine personal, social, and occupational activities? Dementia
Caring for the person with confusion includes maintaining the _________-____________ cycle. Day-night
To maintain the day-night cycle you should ______________ window coverings during the day. Open
To maintain the day-night cycle you should close window coverings at _____________. Night
To maintain the day-night cycle you should use night-_____________ at night. Lights
To maintain the day-night cycle you should have the person wear ____________ clothes during the day. Regular
To maintain the day-night cycle you should follow the person's ________________ as closely as possible. Routine
Dementia is not a _________________ part of aging. Normal
Early warning signs of dementia include recent ______________ loss that affects job skills. Memory
Early warning signs of dementia include problems with _____________ tasks such as dressing, cooking, and driving. Common
Early warning signs of dementia include problems with _______________ such as forgetting simple words. Language
Early warning signs of dementia include getting ____________ in familiar places. Lost
Early warning signs of dementia include misplacing things and putting things in _____________ places. Odd
Early warning signs of dementia include personality ______________________. Changes
Early warning signs of dementia include poor or decreased ________________. Judgment
Early warning signs of dementia include loss of interest in __________. Life
Some dementias can be _______________ if changes in the brain have not occurred. Reversed
Treatable causes of dementia include _________________ and alcohol. Medications
Treatable causes of dementia include delirium and _______________. Depression
Tumors, head injuries, and infection are all __________________ causes of dementia. Treatable
Treatable causes of dementia include heart, lung, and blood _____________ problems. Vessel
Treatable causes of dementia include vision and ______________ problems. Hearing
Permanent dementias result from changes in the _____________. Brain
What is the most common type of permanent dementia? Alzheimer's
What term means false dementia? Pseudodementia
Pseudodementia can occur with ________________ and depression. Delirium
What is a state of sudden, severe confusion and rapid brain changes? Delirium
Delirium is usually ______________ and reversible. Temporary
Delirium is common in older persons with _______________ or chronic illnesses. Acute
What is the most common mental health disorder in older persons? Depression
Depression, aging, and some medication side effects have ___________ signs and symptoms. Similar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a brain disease in which _____________ cells that control intellectual and social function are damaged and die. Nerve
Symptoms of AD usually first appear after age _______. 60
The cause of AD is _____________. Unknown
The classic sign of AD is a gradual loss of _______-_________ memory. Short-term
Warning signs of AD include ___________ the ability to pay bill or balance a checkbook. Losing
Warning signs of AD include neglecting to _______________ or other hygiene matters. Bathe
Warning signs of AD include wearing the same ____________ over and over again. Clothes
Warning signs of AD include forgetting recent events, conversations, and _____________________. Appointments
Warning signs of AD include forgetting _____________ including those of family members. Names
Warning signs of AD include ______________ away from home. Wandering
Stage 1 (or mild AD) is characterized by memory loss - forgetfulness or forgetting ______________ events. Recent
Stage 1 (or mild AD) is characterized by blaming others for _____________, forgetfulness, and other problems. Mistakes
Stage 1 (or mild AD) is characterized by problems performing every-day _______________. Tasks
Stage 2 (or moderate AD) is characterized by a loss of ___________ control. Impulse
A person with stage 2 AD may use ____________ language, poor table manners, exhibit sexual aggression, or be rude. Foul
Stage 3 (or severe AD) is characterized by a total ________________ on others for care. Dependence
Stage 3 (or severe AD) is characterized by being ______________ to person, time, and place. Disoriented
Stage 3 (or severe AD) is characterized by being totally _______________ of urine and feces. Incontinent
Persons with AD may _____________ away and get lost. Wander
Person with AD have poor judgment and cannot tell what is safe or ________________. Dangerous
What is the term used when a person leaves the center without staff knowledge? Elopement
Pain, medication side effects, stress, restlessness, and anxiety are possible causes of ________________. Wandering
MedicAlert + Safe Return is a 24-hour emergency service for persons with Alzheimer's who _____________ or have a medical emergency Wander
The MedicAlert program provides each person with an ID (identification) in the form of a wallet card, _____________, or necklace. Bracelet
What is it called when signs, symptoms, and behaviors of AD increase during hours of darkness? Sundowning
Sundowning may relate to being ___________ or hungry. Tired
Poor light or shadows in the evening may cause a person with AD to _____________ things that are not there. See
What is seeing, hearing, smelling, or feeling something that is not real? Hallucination
Hallucinations are sometimes caused by poor __________ and hearing. Vision
What are false beliefs? Delusions
Some persons with AD may have the delusion that they are in jail, being ________________, or are being attacked. Killed
What is a disorder of the mind in which a person has delusions and suspicion about a person or situation? Paranoia
A person with AD may be paranoid that others are being __________, lying, not fair, or "out to get" him or her. Mean
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) recommends these measures when working with a paranoid person: do not ____________ if the person blames you for something. React
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) recommends these measures when working with a paranoid person: do not ___________ with the person. Argue
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) recommends these measures when working with a paranoid person: let the person know he or she is _________________. Safe
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) recommends these measures when working with a paranoid person: use __________ or gently hug the person if you can without upsetting them. Touch
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) recommends these measures when working with a paranoid person: help them ____________ for missing things to help distract the person. Search
A ____________________ reaction is an extreme response. Catastrophic
Catastrophic reactions are common from too many ______________. Stimuli
An agitated and restless person may pace, ___________, or yell. Hit
You can help and an agitated or restless person by providing a calm, quiet setting and meeting ____________ needs. Basic
When working with an agitated or restless person it is important to keep personal _______ within the person's sight. Items
What is a special bond between people who love and respect each other? Intimacy
What is a type of intimacy in which partner physically express their feelings for each other? Sexuality
Sexual behaviors are labeled ______________ because of how and when they occur. Abnormal
Sexual behaviors may be hard for the person with AD to ___________ and may involve the wrong person, wrong place, or wrong time. Control
Persons with AD may _______________ or expose themselves in front of others. Undress
Persons with AD may __________________ or engage in sexual pleasures in public. Masturbate
Person with AD may mistake someone else for a sexual partner and they may _____________ and hug them. Kiss
If a person is masturbating or undressing in public, lead them to their ______________. Room
Sometimes when a person touches, scratches, or rubs the genitals it can signal _____________, pain, discomfort, or poor hygiene. Infection
Allow __________________ for persons with AD and their partner to express normal intimacy practices such as hand holding, kissing, and touching. Privacy
What type of behaviors are repeated over and over again? Repetitive
Music, picture books, exercise, and movies can help ______________ a person with repetitive behaviors. Distract
Talking a person for a _______________ can help distract from repetitive behaviors. Walk
Communication techniques with persons with AD and other dementias include approaching the person in a ____________, quiet manner. Calm
Communication techniques with persons with AD and other dementias include approaching the person from the __________. Front
Communication techniques with persons with AD and other dementias include speak slowly using _____________ words and short sentences. Simple
Communication techniques with persons with AD and other dementias include giving the person time to ______________ without interruptions or rushing them. Speak
Communication techniques with persons with AD and other dementias include giving the person plenty of time to ____________. Respond
Communication techniques with persons with AD and other dementias include not criticizing, interrupting, arguing, or _____________ with the person. Reasoning
Some person with AD have ___________________ problems and may scream due to confusion and poor communication skills. Communication
Possible causes of communication problems include ______________ and vision problems, pain or discomfort, fear, and fatigue. Hearing
Too much or not enough __________________ may cause a person with AD to scream. Stimulation
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include placing ______________ signs by room doors, bathrooms, dining rooms, and other areas. Picture
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include placing _______________ plugs in electrical outlets or covering outlets with safety plates. Safety
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include storing personal care items (shampoo, deodorant, lotion, etc.) in a ____________ place out of the reach of the person. Safe
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include storing dangerous _________________ and supplies in a safe place. Equipment
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include not using _____________ because they tend to increase confusion and agitation. Restraints
The use of restraints requires a doctor's _________________. Order
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include following bedtime ________________ and habits. Routines
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include meeting food and ______________ needs. Fluid
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include providing good _______________ care. Skin
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include promoting ______________ and activity during the day. Exercise
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include promoting personal ________________. Hygiene
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include promoting oral _____________. Hygiene
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include dressing the person in ___________-opening garments. Front
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include selecting clothing that pulls on or closes with ________________. Velcro
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include offering _____________ clothing choices. Simple
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include laying clothing out in the order it will be put ___________. On
Care of persons with AD and other dementias include having all needed __________________ ready for any procedure. Equipment
A person with Alzheimer's may need _______________ care as death nears. Hospice
You need to carefully ________________ persons with AD because they may not be able to communicate pain, fever, constipation, incontinence or other signs and symptoms. Observe
Therapies and activities for persons with AD focus on the person's ____________ and past successes. Strengths
Activities are based on the person _______________ and capabilities. Preferences
According to OBRA, ________________ nursing units are considered restraints. Secured
A ________________ diagnosis and doctor's order is required to place a person on a secured unit. Dementia
Adult children who care for their own children and their aging parents are said to be in the ________________ generation. Sandwich
Caregivers can suffer from anger, anxiety, ______________, depression, and sleeplessness. Guilt
Caregivers needing support and encouragement may find AD support _____________ helpful. Groups
Created by: na3