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Chapter 34

Nervous System and Musculo-Skeletal Disorders

QuestionAnswer
What is a disease affecting the arteries that supply blood to the brain? Stroke
When a person has a stroke a blood __________ in the brain bursts. Vessel
When a blood vessel in the brain bursts ____________ occurs in the brain called a cerebral hemorrhage. Bleeding
When a person has a stroke a blood _________ may block blood flow to the brain. Clot
Sometimes stroke warning signs last a few ______________ which is called a transient ischemic attack or TIA. Minutes
Warning signs of a stroke include sudden numbness or ___________ of the face, arm, or leg that may affect only one side of the body. Weakness
Warning signs of a stroke include sudden confusion, trouble __________, or understanding speech. Speaking
Warning signs of a stroke include sudden trouble ______________ in one or both eyes. Seeing
Warning signs of a stroke include sudden trouble ______________, dizziness, loss of balance, or coordination. Walking
Warning signs of a stroke include sudden severe _______________ with no known cause. Headache
Risk factors for stoke include age, older person are at a ______________ risk than younger persons. Greater
Risk factors for stoke include __________ history. Family
Risk factors for stoke include gender, both men and women are affected ______________. Equally
Risk factors for stoke include being African-American due to high rates or __________________ and diabetes. Hypertension
Risk factors for stoke include high blood pressure (hypertension) due to damage to blood vessels that cause __________ to form or arteries to burst. Clots
Risk factors for stoke include _____________ disease. Heart
Risk factors for stoke include smoking because the ______________ in cigarettes makes the heart work harder which increases heart rate and blood pressure. Nicotine
Risk factors for stoke include _____________ because elevated blood sugars can damage blood vessels. Diabetes
Risk factors for stoke include high blood cholesterol that causes __________ materials to build up in artery wall blocking blood flow. Fatty
Risk factors for stoke include obesity because over-weight persons are a risk for hypertension, _____________, heart disease, and high blood cholesterol. Diabetes
Risk factors for stoke include previous ______________ or TIA. Stroke
What is paralysis on one side of the body? Hemiplegia
If the person survives the stroke, some brain ____________ is likely. Damage
Functions ___________ depend on the area of brain damage. Lost
Effects of stroke include loss of face, hand, arm, leg, or body ____________. Control
Effects of stroke include paralysis on one side of the body called ______________. Hemiplegia
Effects of stroke include changing ____________ such as crying easily or mood swings for no reason. Emotions
Effects of stroke include difficulty _______________ called dysphagia. Swallowing
Effects of stroke include ______________ or slowed or slurred speech. Aphasia
Effects of stroke include urinary frequency, urgency, or _______________. Incontinence
Effects of stroke include loss of ______________ control or constipation. Bowel
Care of the person with a stroke includes position the person in the ______________ position to prevent aspiration. Lateral
Care of the person with a stroke includes turn and re-position the person every _________ hours. Two
Care of the person with a stroke includes assisting with range-of-motion exercises to prevent __________________. Contractures
Care of the person with a stroke includes provide catheter care as needed or assist with a _______________ training program. Bladder
Care of the person with a stroke includes helping with a bowel ______________ program if needed. Training
Care of the person with a stroke includes keeping the call light within reach on the person's _______________ side. Strong
Care of the person with a stroke includes having the person do as much _________ - _____________ as possible with the aid of assist device as needed. Self-care
When a person has a stroke, __________________ begins at once. Rehabilitation
Parkinson's disease is a slow, progressive disorder with no ____________. Cure
Person over the age of ___________ are at risk for Parkinson's disease. 50
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease become ____________ over time. Worse
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include _____________ usually starting in one finger and spreading to the whole arm. Tremors
Pill-rolling movements - rubbing the thumb and __________ _________ together may occur with Parkinson's disease. Index finger
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigid, stiff ______________. Muscles
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include slow, shuffling ______________. Gait
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include a _________ - like expression in which the person cannot blink or smile. Mask
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include chewing and ______________ problems. Swallowing
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include constipation and ____________ problems. Bladder
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include memory __________ and slow thinking. Loss
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease include slow, ____________, and soft speech. Monotone
Safety measures are needed to prevent ___________ and injury in those with Parkinson's disease. Falls
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease in which nerve impulses are not sent to and from the _____________ in the normal way. Brain
Symptoms of MS often start between 20 and _________ years of age. 40
Signs and symptoms of MS depend on the ______________ area. Damaged
Relapsing-remitting MS happens when symptoms ___________ (remission) and later flare up again (relapse). Disappear
A person with MS is kept ___________ and independent for as long as possible. Active
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) attacks the nerves cells that control ____________ muscles. Voluntary
It is important that the care plan of a person with ALS includes _________ ____________ to keep the person active as long as possible. ROM exercises
Head injuries result from _____________ to the scalp, skull, or brain. Trauma
Disabilities from traumatic brain injury depend on the severity and ___________ of the injury. Site
_______________ is required for persons with traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation
What is the loss of motor function, the loss of sensation, or both? Paralysis
Problem associated with paralysis depend on the amount of damage to the __________ ________ and the level of injury. Spinal cord
With paralysis, the ___________ the level of injury, the more functions lost. Higher
Paralysis in the legs and trunk is called _________________. Paraplegia
What is paralysis in the arms, legs, and trunk called (tetraplegia)? Quadriplegia
Autonomic dysreflexia affects person with spinal cord injuries ___________ the mid-thoracic level. Above
If autonomic dysreflexia is left untreated, stroke, _________ ________ and death are risks. Heart attack
Care of persons with paralysis include preventing __________ by checking bath water, heat applications, and food for proper temperature. Burns
Care of persons with paralysis include preventing pressure ____________. Ulcers
Care of persons with paralysis include maintaining muscle function and preventing _________________. Contractures
Care of persons with paralysis include assisting with ___________ exercises. ROM
The most common causes of autonomic dysreflexia are full _______________, constipation or fecal impaction, and skin disorders. Bladder
What term means joint inflammation? Arthritis
Arthritis is the most common _____________ disease. Joint
What is the most common type of arthritis? Osteoarthritis
Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include joint _____________, pain, swelling, and tenderness. Stiffness
The joint stiffness associated with osteoarthritis occurs with __________ and lack of motion. Rest
_____________ occurs with weight-bearing and joint motion in persons with osteoarthritis. Pain
Weight ___________ reduces stress and injury on weight-bearing joints. Loss
What type of arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes joint pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function? Rheumatoid
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is more common in ________________, Women
Rheumatoid arthritis generally develops between the ages of __________ to 50. 20
The wrist and __________ joints closest to the hand are often affected with rheumatoid arthritis Finger
RA is treated with _________________ for pain relief and to reduce inflammation. Medications
What is the surgical replacement of a joint called? Arthroplasty
With arthroplasty, the damaged joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint called a __________________. Prosthesis
What is it called when bones become porous and brittle? Osteoprosis
With osteoporosis, bones are fragile and ____________ easily. Break
Risk factors for osteoporosis include a family ____________ of the disease. History
Risk factors for osteoporosis include being thin or having a _____________ frame. Small
Risk factors for osteoporosis include eating ______________. Disorders
Risk factors for osteoporosis include lack of exercise, _____________, and immobility. Bedrest
When a person has osteoporosis, back pain, gradual _____________ of height, and stooped posture can occur. Loss
What is a major threat of osteoporosis? Fractures
Fractures are a great risk from ________________ and accidents. Falls
Doctors often order ____________ and vitamins supplements for persons with osteoarthritis. Calcium
_______________ is ordered for some women with osteoarthritis. Estrogen
Measures to help prevent osteoarthritis include _______________ weight-bearing joints with walking, jogging, and stair climbing. Exercising
Measures to help prevent osteoarthritis include ________________ - training such as weight-lifting. Strength
Measures to help prevent osteoarthritis include limiting alcoholic and ______________ beverages. Caffeinated
Measures to help prevent osteoarthritis include back ______________ needed for good posture. Supports
Measures to help prevent osteoarthritis include _____________ measures to prevent falls and accidents. Safety
What is the term for a broken bone? Fracture
What type of fracture happens when the bone is broken but the skin is intact (simple fracture)? Closed
What type of fracture happens when the broken bone has come through the skin (compound fracture)? Open
Signs and symptoms of a fracture are _____________ and swelling. Pain
Signs and symptoms of a fracture are loss of ________________. Function
Signs and symptoms of a fracture include ______________ or no movement of the fractured part. Limited
Signs and symptoms of a fracture include movement where ____________ should not occur. Motion
Signs and symptoms of a fracture include deformity in which the part is in an ______________ position. Abnormal
Signs and symptoms of a fracture include ______________ and skin color changes at the fracture site. Bruising
Signs and symptoms of a fracture include internal and external __________________. Bleeding
Open reduction and internal fixation requires _____________. Surgery
During an open reduction and internal fixation the bone is exposed and moved into _______________. Alignment
When a fracture is repaired nails, ___________, pins, screws, plates, or wires keep the bone in place. Rods
After open reduction the movement of the bone ends is prevented with a _______ or traction. Cast
A plaster of Paris cast dries in about _________ to 48 hours. 24
Plastic and _________________ casts dry quickly. Fiberglass
Rules for cast care include not ______________ the cast with blankets, plastic, or other materials. Covering
Rules for cast care include turning the person every __________ _________ or as directed by the nurse. Two hours
Rules for cast care include supporting the wet cast with your ___________ when turning and positioning the person. Palms
Rules for cast care include keeping the cast dry because a wet cast loses its _____________. Shape
Rules for cast care include not letting anyone _____________ anything into the cast. Insert
Rules for cast care include ______________ the casted limb on pillows to reduce swelling. Elevating
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: _____________ which could indicate pressure ulcers, poor circulation, or nerve damage. Pain
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: swelling or a __________ cast which could indicate reduced blood flow to the affected part. Tight
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: ____________ skin which could indicate reduced blood flow to the affected part. Pale
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: _______________ (a bluish color to the skin) which could indicate reduced blood flow to the affected part. Cyanosis
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: unusual _____________ which could indicate infection. Odors
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: inability to ____________ fingers and toes which could indicate pressure on a nerve. Move
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: _______________ which could indicate pressure on a nerve or reduced blood flow to the affected area. Numbness
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: _______________ changes because cool skin means poor circulation and hot skin mean inflammation. Temperature
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: ______________ on or under the cast which could indicate infection or bleeding. Drainage
When a person has a cast you need to report these problems at once: chills, fever, nausea, and vomiting which could indicate ____________. Infection
What reduces and immobilizes fractures by placing a steady pull in two directions to keep the bone in place? Traction
What type of traction is applied to the bone? Skeletal
Fractured ____________ are common in older persons. Hips
Post-operative problems associated with hip fractures include pneumonia, atelectasis (collapse of part of the lung), UTIs, and thrombi (blood clots) in the ______________ veins. Leg
Fractures require ______________ fixation (open reduction). Internal
Care of the person in traction involves: not _____________ the traction. Removing
Care of the person in traction involves: not adding or removing ______ from the traction set-up. Weights
Care of the person in traction involves: __________________ the person as directed. Positioning
Care of the person in traction involves: providing a ___________ pan for elimination. Fracture
Care of the person in traction involves: putting bottom linens on the bed from the ______________ down. Top
Care of a person with a hip fracture involves: preventing ____________ rotation of the hip using trochanter rolls, pillows and sandbags as directed. External
Care of a person with a hip fracture involves: keeping the hips ____________ at all times. Abducted
Care of a person with a hip fracture involves: applying compression stockings to prevent ______________ (blood clots) in the legs. Thrombi
What is the removal of all or part of an extremity? Amputation
What is a condition in which there is death of tissue that may lead to death? Gangrene
With gangrene, tissues die and become ___________, cold, and shriveled. Black
_______________ limb pain is pain in an amputated body part. Phantom
Created by: na3