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Chapter 11

TermDefinition
Gene pool The total set of genes, including all alleles, that are present in a population at any one point in time
Allele frequency Proportion of one allele, compared with all the alleles for that trait, in the gene pool
Normal distribution A distribution of numerical data whose graph forms a bell-shaped curve that is symmetrical about the mean
Microevolution Observable change in the allele frequencies of a population over a few generations
Directional selection A natural selection process in which one genetic variation is selected and that causes a change in the overall genetic composition of the population
Stabilizing selection A type of natural selection in which the average form of a trait is favored and becomes more common
Disruptive selection A type of natural selection in which two extreme forms of a trait are selected
Gene flow The movement of genes into or out of a population due to interbreeding
Genetic drift The random change in allele frequency in a population
Bottleneck effect Genetic drift that results from an event that drastically reduces the size of a population
Founder effect Genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area
Sexual selection An evolutionary mechanism by which traits that increase the ability of individuals to attract or acquire mates appear with increasing frequency in a population; selection in which a mate is chosen on the basis of a particular trait or traits
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Condition in which a population's allele frequencies for a given trait do not change from generation to generation
Reproductive isolation A state in which a particular set of populations can no longer interbreed to produce future generations of offspring
Speciation The formation of new species as a result of evolution
Behavioral isolation Isolation between populations due to differences in courtship or mating behavior
Geographic isolation Isolation between populations due to physical barriers
Temporal isolation Isolation between populations due to barriers related to time, such as differences in mating periods or differences in the time of day that individuals are most active
Convergent evolution The process by which unrelated species become more similar as they adapt to the same kind of environment
Divergent evolution Evolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions
Coevolution The evolution of two or more species that is due to mutual influence often in a way that makes the relationship more mutually beneficial
Extinction The death of every member of a species
Punctuated equilibrium A model of evolution in which short periods of drastic change in species, including mass extinctions and rapid speciation, are separated by long periods of little or no change
Adaptive radiation An evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestral species
Created by: mariazierolf
 

 



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