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Pumping Cycle Step 1 blood from the body flows into the right atrium, then the right ventricle, to be pumped to the lungs
Pumping Cycle Step 2 Blood from the lungs goes into the left atrium, then the left ventricle, to be pumped to the body
Systole ventricles contract and pump blood out of the heart, atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral) close to stop backflow into the atria; begins the cycle
Diastole Aortic and pulmonary (semilunar) valves close and blood flows from the atria into the ventricles; resting phase
Effects of increased heart rate cardiac cycle is completed in a shorter period of time; most of the speed up comes out of the diastolic period; chronically rapid heart rate reduces overall time for rest and decreases heart strength
blood pressure systolic/ diastolic
fluid dynamics factors of blood pressure cardiac output, blood volume, peripheral resistance, elasticity, viscosity
cardiac output blood volume pumped per minute; more output= higher bp
blood volume amount of blood in the system; greater volume= higher pressure needed to move it
peripheral resistance difficulty of passing through blood vessels; more resistance= more pressure; as you go down the line, blood vessels get smaller and peripheral resistance increases
elasticity ease of stretching the blood vessels; less elasticity= higher bp (usually systolic)
viscosity blood thickness; thicker blood= more pressure
individual factors/circumstances affecting blood pressure environmental temperature, activity, emotions
environmental temperature higher temp --> skin vessels expand--> bp drops; lower temps have the opposite effect
activity exercise increases pressure as does posture; standing decreases pressure in the veins to the heart due to gravity, bp falls
emotions stress, anger, or anxiety activate the sympathetic nervous system and increase blood pressure
factors affecting hypertension (make it more likely) obesity, old age, gender, race (blacks) HOWEVER, all are tied to obesity
blood composition formed elements and plasma
formed elements cells and cell-like structures making up 45% of the blood
red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen; each cell lasts ~3 months
anemia too few RBC's
erythrocytosis too many RBC's
sickle-cell anemia genetic abnormality of RBC's including hemoglobin; more common in blacks; may help malaria resistance
leukocytes several types of white blood cells with protective functions like attacking bacteria
leukemia malignancy where abnormal WBC's are overproduced and crowd out other blood cells
Leukopenia insufficient WBC's, poor immunity
Leukocytosis excess white cells, usually to fight infection
Platelets involved in blood clotting
plasma 90% water; about 55% of the blood; includes plasma proteins, nutrients from digestion, enzymes, hormones, waste products, etc.
atherosclerosis accumulation of fatty plaque on artery walls
arteriosclerosis resulting decrease in artery diameter and flexibility; this process starts pretty early in life (late teens?)
myocardial infarction heart attack caused by obstruction of the heart's blood supply
angina pectoralis brief interruption of the heart's blood supply; caused by narrow arteries; shows up during exercise; could be a sign of a heart attack in the future
aneurysm bulge in weakened artery wall section which can rupture; frequently in the aorta
stroke disruption of blood supply to the brain by thrombosis (blood clot) or vessel rupture; Problem: must determine the cause quickly (thrombosis can be treated with chemicals to break up the clot)
Created by: Jean-O
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