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Biology Module 2

QuestionAnswer
What is the biosphere - lower atmosphere -earth's surface -lithosphere -hydrosphere
Biome broad geographic region with characteristic plants and animals. identified by dominant vegetation type
Important aspects of climate Temperature and rainfall patterns
Deserts typical latitude 30 degrees north or south latitude
Where Tropical Rain Forests are typically found around the equator
Why is it warmer at the equator? Sunlight is directly over head of the equator
What is the biosphere - lower atmosphere -earth's surface -lithosphere -hydrosphere
Biome broad geographic region with characteristic plants and animals. identified by dominant vegetation type
Important aspects of climate Temperature and rainfall patterns
Deserts typical latitude 30 degrees north or south latitude
Where Tropical Rain Forests are typically found around the equator
Why is it warmer at the equator? Sunlight is directly over head of the equator
How is CO2 related to temperature? the higher the CO2 content in the atmosphere, the higher the temperature
El Nino Year When weather patterns are different than they usually are for a short period of time
Forests are what percent of the Earth's surface? 30%
Grasslands are what percent of the Earth's surface? 30%
Features of Grasslands -Lower rain fall -Fire adapted
Other names for Evergreen forests - Coniferous - Boreal Forest - Taiga
Deserts are what percent of the Earth's surface? 30%
Tundra features - no trees - permafrost - northern latitudes (ex. upper Canada)
Tropical forests recycling of nutrients: happens rapidly
Aquatic ecosystems are what percent of the earth's surface? 75%
Life zone is determined by? limit of light penetration (2% of the ocean's volume)
The base of the marine ecosystems are? Phytoplankton
What eats phytoplankton? Zooplankton
What are estuaries? Mix of salt and fresh water (river meets ocean)
Where is the life in lakes? At the surface
Acid rain leads to? death of plant and animal life
What are wetlands good for? flood control and filtering water
4 Types of Air Pollutants - photo-chemicals (smog) - carbon dioxide (greenhouse effect) - sulfur, nitric oxides (acid rain) - CFC's (ozone depletion
Smog causes? car emissions
Greenhouse effect causes? burning fossil fuels, deforestation
Acid rain causes? coal burning, car emissions
CFC's causes? refrigerants
Smog is responsible for? respiratory diseases, cancer, and death
Over the last 100 years the average temp has increased by? 1 degree F
Over the next 100 years the average temp is expected to rise by? 4 to 8 degrees F
What is the pH level of normal rain? 5.5
Eutrophication is? over nutrients in water
What percent of water is used in households? 10%
What percent of water is used in irrigation? 70%
Where is the Ogallala Aquifer located? East of the Rocky Mountains
What causes Desertification? Overgrazing and Overcultivation
What percent of paper, yard waste, and plastic are there in solid waste? Paper - 40% Yard waste - 20% Plastic - 10%
Where do hazardous wastes go? Safe storage
Where does the majority of energy come from in developed countries? Fossil fuels
Where does the majority of energy come from in developing countries? Wood
How long will fossil fuels last? 100-300 years
Where does nuclear waste go in the United States? Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Wind power cost vs fossil fuel power cost wind power more expensive in short term but probably cheaper in the long run
How to make "food go farther"? Eat lower on the food chain
What happens to air in the tropics? It rises and flows north and south
Matter is composed of? Elements
Elements are composed of? Atoms
Atoms are composed of? protons, neutrons, and electrons
Atoms bond with other atoms to form? Molecules
Atoms' ability to bond depends on? Number of electrons
Innermost shell of an atom is filled when it has how many electrons? 2
All other shells of an atom are filled when they have how many electrons? 8
Atoms with the outermost shell filled are? NOT reactive
Atoms with the outermost shell not filled are? Reactive with atoms that will fill shell (ex. Hindenberg blimp blew up)
Covalent bonds? Sharing of electrons
Ionic bonds? Giving of electrons
Polar covalent bonds? negative side and positive side
Acids are ____________ dissolved in water that _________ hydrogen ion concentration increase
Bases are ___________ dissolved in water that __________ hydrogen ion concentration decrease
Important elements for living things? (abv.) CHNOPS
What do all organic molecules have in common? contain carbon atoms
What are the 4 important organic molecules? - carbohydrates - lipids - proteins - nucleic acids
Unsaturated fats have? Double bonds of carbon
How many important amino acids are there? 20
What does DNA stand for? Deoxyribonucleic Acid
ATP? cells spending money (energy)
When was the cell theory developed? mid 1800's
What is the cell theory? (3 parts) 1. every organism is composed of cells 2. cells are the smallest unit of life 3. new cells come from existing cells
2 major groups of organisms are? - Prokaryote (bacteria) - Eukaryotes (everything else)
Prokaryotic cells don't have? a nucleus or organelles
Which ER has ribosomes? Rough ER
Where is ATP made? Mitochondria
what has a cell wall? plants and fungi
Created by: maryssamccunn