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Dyslipidemias LPN

LPN GOODCARE 2018 Dyslipidemias

QuestionAnswer
characterized by fatty deposits in artery walls Atherosclerosis
Abnormal elevation of cholesterol and triglycerides Hyperlipidemia
Caused by genetic abnormalities and secondary factors such as lifestyle, drugs, or underlying diseases Hyperlipidemia
30 minutes of moderate daily exercise is recommended. A fasting lipoprotein profile (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) is recommended every 5 years for all adults older than 20 years of age Patient education Hyperlipidemia
Consume high-bulk foods: whole grains, raw fruits and vegetables and Lots of water to minimize constipation Avoid high-cholesterol foods: liver, egg yolks, meats, fried foods, fatty desserts, nuts Importance of weight reduction and exercise Lifestyle c Patient education Hyperlipidemia
Weight reduction Exercise Diet low in cholesterol and fat PrimaryTreatment of Hyperlipidemias
Presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) Level of total cholesterol Level of HDL-C Success of diet interventions NCEP Treatment of Hyperlipidemias
Best administered at night because of peak cholesterol production at this time. Do not differ in effectiveness, but they do differ in potential drug interactions. Statins
Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolism and should be avoided Statins
Inhibit enzyme responsible for converting HMG-CoA to mevalonate, ultimately reduce liver cholesterol Statins
Used In conjunction with dietary therapy to reduce LDL and total cholesterol levels Statins
Headaches; nausea, abdominal bloating, gas Statins Common adverse effects
Liver dysfunction; myopathy, rhabdomyolysis; myoglobinuria Serious adverse effects Statins Liver dysfunction; myopathy, rhabdomyolysis; myoglobinuria
muscle aches, soreness, and weakness Myopathy: early signs are m
kidney damage resulting from progressing myopathy (may have pinkish- or red-tinged urine) Rhabdomyolysis
Liver function should be monitored. If AST, ALT rise to 3X normal, medication should be discontinued Statins
Myopathy may occur if used in conjunction with statins. Fibric Acids
Most effective agents in lowering triglycerides Fibric Acids
Serious adverse effects: early symptoms of gallbladder disease and hepatotoxicity. Fibric Acids
gemfibrozil (Lopid), fenofibrate (Tricor Fibric Acids
Lower triglyceride levels; mechanism of action unknown Fibric Acids
Used In conjunction with dietary therapy to treat hypertriglyceridemia Fibric Acids
Common adverse effects Nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal distress Fibric Acids
Serious adverse effects Fatigue, anorexia, nausea, malaise, jaundice Fibric Acids
ezetimibe (Zetia) Miscellaneous Antilipemic Agents
Block absorption of cholesterol from small intestine ezetimibe (Zetia)
Used conjunction with dietary therapy to decrease elevated cholesterol ezetimibe (Zetia)
Antilipemic agent whose Common adverse effects are Abdominal pain, diarrhea ezetimibe (Zetia)
The first drug in this class and should not be used with fibric acid Ezetimibe
Often referred to as fish oils omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
Actions Reduce synthesis of triglycerides in the liver; mechanism of action unknown omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
New class of agents to reduce atherosclerosis omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
Used in conjunction with dietary therapy to decrease elevated triglyceride levels omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
Common adverse effects Nausea, back and abdominal pain, bloating, bad taste in mouth, weakness, diarrhea omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
Use with caution in patients who are sensitive or allergic to fish omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
Advantage over fibrates and niacin is that they do not cause myositis or rhabdomyolysis when combined with statins omega-3 fatty acids (Lovaza)
Created by: TutorDavis17