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Respiratory system

bronchitis an inflammation of the tubes that carry air to and from the lungs
emphysema chronic lung disease in which the alveoli are damaged. A loss of elasticity prevents alveoli from expanding
asthma narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles due to the constriction of muscles around the airways
cystic fibrosis recessive, autosomal genetic disease in which lungs collect mucous and cause multiple infections.
yawning a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath. Ventilates all alveoli. Possibly functions to cool the brain.
hiccups a reflex consisting of the simultaneous inhalation of air and the stretching of the eardrums, followed by an exhalation of breath
coughing a common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus or foreign irritants. The glottis closes and forces air superiorly from longs against glottis. It opens suddenly and blasts air outward.
sneezing a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. Similar to a cough. Depressed uvula routes air upward through nasal cavity.
laughing/crying Inspiration followed by releasing air in a number of short expirations, primarily emotionally induced
apex superior tip of the lungs
base inferior, flat base of the lungs against which the diaphragm sits.
lobes Fissures divide the lungs into lobes. The right lung has 3 lobes while the left has two.
bronchiole a small thin walled branch of a bronchus. They don't have cartilage rings and do have a muscular layer for contraction
bronchodilation expansion of the bronchial airways
bronchoconstriction contraction of the smooth muscle to reduce the airways in the lungs
primary bronchi The branches of the airway that enter the lungs.
bronchial tree the intricate system of air passages inside each lung. Air enters the lungs from two bronchi.
trachea a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air. Also called the windpipe.
larynx the hollow muscular and cartilaginous organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords in humans and other mammals; the voice box. It sits on top of the trachea
glottis the opening of the larynx that contains the vocal folds.
epiglottis a flap made of elastic cartilage covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx. It covers the glottis while swallowing.
vocal folds also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are two sets of tissue stretched across the larynx that can vibrate creating sound.
Boyle's law the principle that the volume of a confined gas at constant temperature varies inversely with its pressure
cellular respiration the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP and waste products (water and CO2)
diaphragm the primary muscle used in the process of inspiration, or inhalation. It is a dome-shaped sheet of muscle that is inserted into the lower ribs under the lungs.
Functions of the respiratory system gas exchange, conduction of air, defense against microorganisms, warm/humidify and cleanse air, maintaining homeostasis, vocalization
functions of the larynx vocalization, keep airway open, direct food to the esophagus
voice production Produced by vocal fold vibration. Longer, thicker cords produce lower tones (males).
respiratory epithelium The ciliated cells and goblet (mucus) cells that line and protect the respiratory tract. They create a "mucus escalator" trapping debris and moving it upwards and out.
nares nostrils
Paranasal sinuses a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.
conchae also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose creating air turbulence to warm, clean and humidify the air.
respiratory zone the site of O2 and CO2 exchange with the blood. The respiratory bronchioles and the alveolar ducts are responsible for 10% of the gas exchange. The alveoli are responsible for the other 90%.
conducting zone is made up of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles; their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs
pharynx the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus and larynx
pulmonary ventilation exchanges gases between the outside air and the alveoli of the lungs. (aka breathing). It depends on a difference between the atmospheric air pressure and the pressure in the alveoli.
internal respiration an exchange of gases between the cells of the body and the blood
external respiration the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood
inspiration the process of drawing in breath (inhaling)
expiration the process of expelling breath (exhaling)
alveoli any of the many tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
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