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Wld. Geo Ch 20


Tundra a vast, flat, treeless Arctic region of Europe, Asia, and North America in which the subsoil is permanently frozen.
Taiga the sometimes swampy coniferous forest of high northern latitudes, especially that between the tundra and steppes of Siberia and North America.
Steppe a large area of flat unforested grassland in southeastern Europe or Siberia.
Chernozem a fertile black soil rich in humus, with a lighter lime-rich layer beneath. Such soils typically occur in temperate grasslands such as the Russian steppes and North American prairies.
Permafrost a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions.
Loam a fertile soil of clay and sand containing humus.
Regolith the layer of unconsolidated rocky material covering bedrock.
Soviet an elected local, district, or national council in the former Soviet Union.
Czar an emperor of Russia before 1917:
Abdicate renounce one's throne
Glasnost the policy or practice of more open consultative government and wider dissemination of information in the former Soviet Union
Perestroika the policy or practice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system
Ruble the basic monetary unit of Russia and some other former republics of the Soviet Union, equal to 100 kopeks.
Black Market illegal traffic or trade in officially controlled or scarce commodities
Command Economy an economy in which production, investment, prices, and incomes are determined centrally by a government.
Created by: 2018106