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Test 2 part 2


What type of equipment is used to test microaerophilics? Candle jar
What bacteria can grow in temperatures between 45 to 80 degrees celcius? Thermophiles
What bacteria can grow in temperatures between 20 to 40 degrees celcius? Mesophiles
What bacteria can grow in temperatures between 0 to 15 degrees celcius? Psychrophiles
What are the 3 types of ecological associations or relationships? Mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
What microorganisms can withstand high pressures such as deep sea microbes? Barophiles
What is the final electron acceptor in the kreb cycle? Inorganic molecule
What are the 3 ways living organisms generate ATP? Respiration, Fermentation, and Photosynthesis
What microorganisms requires high salt concentrations? Halophils (yeast and mold)
What microorganisms can tolerate moderate acid and are the most common spoilage agents of acidic pickled foods? Molds and yeast
What microorganisms grow best in a pH of 10? Alkalinophiles
What 2 gases most influence microbial growth? Oxygen and carbon dioxide
What microorganisms can survive dry habitats? Spores and cysts
The incomplete oxidation of glucose or other carbohydrate in the absence of oxygen is called what? Fermentation
What microorganisms grow best in a pH of 0? Acidophiles
What pH range do most microorganisms grow best between? 6-8
What are the multiplication cycles in animal viruses? Absorption, penetration ,uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release
Viruses multiply only in cells of particular species and thus are divided into what three main classes? Animal, bacterial, and plant viruses
What are the 3 stages of a bacterial virus? Inject DNA, Release (lyses) and Prophage (lysogeny) stage
In terms of energy, algae is considered to be a _____________? Photoautotroph
Cofactors are non protein parts of certain enzymes, 2 things which function as cofactors are proteins OR lipids OR minerals OR vitamins? Minerals and vitamins
The most energy is produced by respiration OR vitamins OR fermentation? Respiration
Vitamins and minerals function in living organisms as enzymes OR cofactors OR coenzymes? Cofactors
Heat and abnormal pH can slow down OR destroy OR denature enzymes? Denature
An enzyme can act on only one OR many different substrates? only one
A substrate can be acted on by only one OR by many different enzymes? Many different
Are enzymes used up OR not used up when the end product is created? not used up
Are enzymes destroyed OR inhibited by the end products they create? Inhibited
Where does energy production in a bacteria take place? Plasma membrane
What is the final electron acceptor in fermentation? Organic molecule
What is the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration? Inorganic molecules
What is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration? Oxygen
Yeast will undergo the process of fermentation in order to produce what? Energy
The purpose of aerobic respiration is to make energy. What are the 2 byproducts? Carbon Dioxide and water
Glycolysis is the process in which __________is broken down to _________? Glucose, Pyruvic acid
About 10% of the water in your body is metabolic water. Where does the oxygen which makes up metabolic water come from? Oxygen you take in from the air
What is the term used for a structural change in a host cell resulting from a viral infection? CPE Cytopathic effects
How do chemoheterotrophs process organic molecules? Respiration and fermentation which releases energy in the form of ATP
Plants are autotrophs OR heterotrophs? Autotrophs
How do saprobes obtain their food? They feed primarily on organic debris from dead organisms
What bacteria can survive high salt conditions but is not required? Facultative halophiles
What is the term that is used when 2 drugs don't work together? antagonism
What is the term that is used when 2 drugs work together? synergism
What are the 4 phases of the bacteria growth curve? Lag, log, stationary, and death phase
What is the most active phase of the bacteria growth curve? Log
What is the phase of bacteria where some divide and some die? Stationary phase
In the growth curve of bacteria what phase is most suceptable to drugs? Log phase
The time is take to complete cell division is called what? Generation time
Counting or getting an estimate on the number of bacteria is called what? Enumeration of bacteria
The sum of all chemical reaction within a living organism is refered to as what? Metabloism
Metabolic activity is divided into what 2 types of activities? Catabolic and anabolic
What metabolic activity is responsible for building up? Anabolic
What metabolic activity is responsible for tearing down? Catabolic
How is energy-requiring and energy releasing reactions achieved? ATP
Part of the energy that is released in catabolism is available for__________the other part is lost to the environment as_____. Cellular functions/heat
What speeds up the rate of metabolic reactions? Enzymes
The physiological temperature and pressure of organisms are too low for chemical reactions to occur quickly enough to maintain the life of the organism therefore the solution to the problem is what? Enzymes
What serves as a biological catalysts? Enzymes
A cell's metabolic pathway is determined by its_______which are in turn determined by the cells__________? Enzymes/genetic makeup
What are 2 parts of an enzyme? Apoenzyme and cofactor
A cofactor can be one of 2 things Metal Ion (inorganic) or a Coenzyme (organic)
What are the 2 changes that may occur in the body that will denature an enzyme? Body temperature or a high/low pH
What is the area where the substrate comes in contact with the enzyme? Active site
When the substrate comes in contact with the enzyme it forms a temporary intermediate compound called what? Enzyme-substrate complex
What part of the enzyme-substrate complex is changed by rearrangement of existing atoms? Substrate
What part of the enzyme-substrate complex remains unchanged? Enzyme
Enzymes can also become denatured by what outside factors? Concentrated acids, bases, heavy metal ions, or alcohol and UV radiation
Extremely high concentration of what causes the the enzymes to stop catalyzing specific reaction? Substrates
What are 3 types of inhibitors? Competitive, Noncompetitive, and feedback inhibitors
What enzyme inhibitor competes with the normal substrate for active site of the enzymes Competitive inhibitors
What enzyme inhibitors act on part of the enzyme other than the active site and alters the enzyme? Noncompetitive inhibitors
What is a regulatory mechanism that prevents the cell from making excessive end-products and that act on enzymes already synthesized? Feedback inhibiton
What 3 methods are used to get an estimate on the number of bacteria? Real-time PCR, Flow cytometer, and Coulter counter
Created by: seshelby62