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Chapter 13

Adrenergic Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Class of agents called________, all involved in neurotransmission Catecholamines
Natural catecholamines: NE, epinephrine (adrenalin), dopamine
Synthetic catecholamines: Isoproterenol, dobutamine
Adrenergic receptors: Receptors at the ends of postganglionic sympathetic neurons that cause adrenaline-like response
Stimulation of sympathetic nervous system is called? Adrenergic agents or sympathomimetics
Inhibition of sympathetic nervous system is called? Adrenergic-blocking agents, adrenergic antagonists, or sympatholytics
What are two Types of Adrenergic Receptors? Alpha receptors and beta receptors
Alpha 1 receptors location: Eyes Arterioles (skin viscera, mucous membranes) Veins Sex organs (male) Bladder neck & prostatic capsule
Alpha 1 receptor Response to Receptor Activation: Eyes: mydriasis, Arterioles (skin viscera, mucous membranes): constrict, Veins: constrict, Sex organs (male): ejaculation, Bladder neck & prostatic capsule: contraction
Beta 1 receptors location: Heart & Kidney
Beta 1 receptors response to receptor activation: ↑HR, force of contraction & AV conduction velocity Renin release – RAS
Beta 2 receptors location: Arterioles (heart/ lungs/ skeletal muscle) Bronchi Uterus Liver Skeletal muscle
Beta 2 receptors response to receptor activation: Arterioles (heart/ lungs/ skeletal muscle): dilation Bronchi: dilation Uterus: relaxation Liver: glycogenolysis Skeletal muscle: Enhanced contraction, glycogenlysis
Where are Alpha1- adrenergic Receptors found? In all sympathetic target organs except heart
What response do Alpha1- adrenergic Receptor produce in the body? Constriction of blood vessels. Dilation of pupils
Where are Alpha2- adrenergic Receptors found? At presynaptic adrenergic neuron terminals
What do Alpha2-adrenergic Receptors inhibit? Inhibit release of norepinephrine
Beta2- adrenergic Receptors are found in? In all sympathetic target organs except the heart
Beta2- adrenergic Receptors inhibit? Inhibit smooth muscle
What should be monitored in Adrenergic Drugs (Sympathomimetics)? Vital signs, urinary and cardiac output as appropriate. Monitor breathing patterns. Observe patient's responsiveness to light. Monitor for rhinorrhea and epistaxis.
Primary use of beta blockers is in the treatment of ? Hypertension
Beta- adrenergic antagonists have several other important therapeutic applications for? Angina pectoris Migraines Heart failure
Prototype drug: prazosin (Minipress) mechanism of action? To inhibit the sympathetic nervous system
prazosin (Minipress) primary use? Hypertension, dysrhythmias, angina, heart failure, benign prostatic hypertrophy, narrow-angle glaucoma
Adverse effects of Beta 1: Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, loss of energy and strength, palpitations, dry mouth
What to monitor with adrenergic blockers? Urinary hesitancy, incomplete bladder emptying, interrupted urinary stream Monitor vital signs, level of consciousness, and mood. Monitor for dizziness, drowsiness, or light-headedness. Observe for side effects. Monitor cardiac output
Prototype drug: phenylephrine (Neo- Synephrine). Mechanism of action? To stimulate the sympathetic nervous system directly/indirectly
Created by: alyxinwndrland