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Earth Science

Chapter 1 - Vocabulary

Atmosphere The gaseous envelope of air surround Earth, made up of a mixture of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases and water vapor; one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
Biosphere All living organisms in the Earth system and their environments; one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
Carbon Cycle The biogeochemical circulation of carbon through the Earth system.
Closed System A system in which energy can enter or leave, but matter cannot.
Cycle The physical or chemical processing of Earth materials that repeats over time, for example, the water cycle, carbon cycle, and rock cycle.
Earth System Science The study of Earth materials and processes subdivided into a group of four interconnected spheres of activity: atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
Energy Cycle The movement of energy into and out of the Earth system.
Evapotranspiration The rapid cycling of water vapor into the atmosphere by evaporation from Earth's surface or traspiration from plant leaves.
Geosphere The rocks, mountains, lithospheric plates, and other physical features of Earth except for water; one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
Geothermal Energy Heat energy that originates from within Earth and drives the movement of Earth's tectonic plates.
Hydrosphere All water in the Earth system - gaseous (water vapor), solid (snow and ice), and liquid (rain and water); one of the four spheres of the Earth system.
Model A simplified representation of an object, process, or phenomenon, used as the basis for further study or investigation.
Open System A system in which there is a free exchange of both energy and matter between the system and its surroundings.
Solar Energy The energy emitted by the sun.
System A naturally occurring group of objects or phenomena that share matter and energy, for example, the four spheres of the Earth system.
Tidal Energy Energy created by the gravitational pull of the sun and moon on the Earth's oceans.
Water Cycle The continuous circulation of water through the hydrosphere as solid, liquid, or gas.
Created by: klstoops