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AP BIO chapter 18-19

Chapter 18-20 Campbell AP BIO vocab

TermDefinition
Repetitive DNA Nucleotide sequences
Transposable elements A segment of DNA that can move within the genome of a cell by means of a DNA or RNA intermediate.
Polyploidy A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. This is a result of an accident of cell division.
Evolution Descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present day ones; also defined more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation.
Genes with Novel Functions Pieces of DNA that had not been previously identified as a being gene. For example
Transposable elements lead to genome evolution by: Promoting recombination ; Disrupting cellular genes or control elements by "jumping" into a protein-coding sequence that will prevent production of a normal transcript of the gene; Carrying entire genes or individual exons to new locations.
Fossils A preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past.
Natural Selection A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
Adaptation inherited characteristics of organisms that enhance an organism's ability to survive and reproduce.
Artificial Selection "Man" decides; selective breeding or inbreeding occurs.
Homologous Structures Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
Vestigial Structures A feature of an organism that is a historical remnant of a structure that served a function in the organism's ancestors.
Convergent Evolution The evolution of similar features in independent evolutionary lineages.
Analogous Structures Structures that are similar in function but does not share a common ancestor.
Bio-geographical Evidence The scientific study of the past and present geographic distribution of species. Geographical distribution is influenced by many factors including continental drift and can predict where fossils will be found based on where species originated.
Endemic Species Referring to a species that is confined to a specific geographic area.
Created by: Hajra Maqsoos