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Bio 20 Organic Chem

What are the biologically important elements? “CHNOPS” Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulphur.
Which two of the “CHNOPS” elements don’t have two bonding sites? Carbon and oxygen. How many do they have? Carbon has four and oxygen has one.
What’s the smallest non-living thing? A subatomic particule. And the smallest living thing? A cell.
Rank these levels of biological organization from least to most complex. Organism, community, tissue, cell, biosphere, ecosystem, organ, population, and system. Cell, tissue, organ, system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere.
True or false. Molecules are smaller than atoms. False. From most to least complex, non-living things are subatomic particules, atoms, molecules, and organelles.
What two elements must organic molecules contain? Together, what do they form? Carbon and hydrogen. Together they form hydrocarbons (a chain or carbons with hydrogen attached at all other bonding sites, even if not drawn) Carbon is considered what? Carbone is the backbone, or skeleton, for organic molecules.
What does it mean to be polar? Molecules with an unequal distribution of charge are polar. Polar molecules are hydrophilic, which means what? They dissolve well in water. Hydrophobic is the opposite.
What’s the structure of the functional group hydroxyl? ROH. And its biological significance? It’s polar, hydrogen bonds found in alcohols.
What’s the structure of the functional group carboxyl? RCOOH. And its biological significance? It’s a weak acid, donates an H ion and becomes negatively charged.
What’s the structure of the functional group amino? RNH2. And its biological significance? It’s a weak base, accepts an H ion and becomes positively charged.
Together, what do they carboxyl and amino groups make together? Amino acids. They do this how? By sharing a hydrogen ion.
What’s the structure of the functional group ketone (carbonyl?) RCOR. And its biological significance? It’s polar, found in some sugars.
What’s the structure of the functional group phosphate? RPO4. And its biological significance? It’s usually negatively charged. Forms acids by attracting hydrogen ions. In the phospholipid bilayer, ATP, and DNA/RNA.
What are two function are the most common organic molecules in living things? What do they do to help an organism function? They are required for material to build, repair, and maintain body tissue. And? The fuel energy for bodily functions.
What must organic substances contain? Carbon and hydrogen. And what are the five categories of organic substances? Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and vitamins.
What about inorganic substances? They contain what? Carbon and hydrogen, but not together. The two inorganic substances necessary for organisms are what? Water and minerals.
What are polymers? Large molecules made up of repeating parts. What are these repeating parts called? Monomers.
What are carbohydrates? Energy storage molecules. Are they the first, second, or third source? First. Carbohydrates are the go-to energy source.
What are monosaccharides, or simple sugars? They’re the basic subunits of all carbohydrates, so they’re monomers. The most common form is glucose (used by vertebrates for cellular respiration,) but what are the four other forms? Ribose, deoxyribose, fructose, and galactose. Monosaccharides are polar.
Why does alpha glucose differ from beta glucose? The OH and H on the right of the isomer are swapped. For alpha glucose, the OH is where? At the top. For beta glucose the OH is at the bottom.
What are disaccharides? They’re two simple sugars (monosaccharides) joined together by a covalent bond. What is the process of creating a disaccharide called? Dehydration synthesis, or a condensation relation. Water is produced and the H from one simple sugar and the OH from another are removed.
Glucose and glucose make what? Maltose. Glucose and galactose make what? Lactose. Which leaves glucose and fructose to make sucrose, which is table sugar.
What are polysaccharides? Chains of simple sugars bonded together. Polymers. The two types are what? Storage (starch and glycogen) and structure (cellulose and chitin.)
How do plants store carbohydrates? With starch, our most efficient fuel. What’s it made of? Chains of alpha glucose, which form amylose.
How do animals store carbohydrates? With glycogen, which is made of alpha glucose. Where are our carbs stored? In the liver and muscle cells. Starches are bigger than glycogen.
What indigestible substance (unless you’re a cow, termite, bacteria, fungi etc.) makes up the cell wall of plants as well as half of all organic carbon in the biosphere? Cellulose, or fibre. It makes for a healthy digestive tract (no constipation, diarrhoea) and is made up of chains of what? Beta glucose aligned in a strong parallel structure without branching.
What’s also indigestible it makes strong structure for animals? Chitin. It makes up the exoskeleton for organisms and the cell walls or fungi. Is it digestible? No.
What is the richest source of energy? Fat. What’s the go-to source? Carbohydrates. The last source used is what? Protein.
True or false. Carbohydrates provide about 1/3 of the body’s fuel needs. False; they provide about 2/3 of our fuel needs. What happens if not enough carbohydrate is eaten? The body breaks down fat and protein for energy.
The main source of carbohydrates in your diet is green plants. What do carbohydrates provide? Sugar, starch, and cellulose. Lactose is found in milk. How much of a Westerner’s carbohydrate intake is made up by simple sugars (ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, fructose, galactose?) About half. Sugar over-consumption can lead to several issues, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, tooth decay, or hyperactivity.
What are lipids? Fats, oils, and waxes. They’re non-polar. What are they used for? Storage of energy, structure for cell membranes, hormone and vitamin (ADEK) transporters.
Most of our lipids, composed of three fatty acids, are called what? Triglycerides. They’re attached to one glycerol molecule by what type of bond? An ester bond.
H | H—C—OH | H—C—OH | H—C—OH | H That was glycerol. This is triglyceride. Notice all the hydrogen attached. This makes it saturated. H O H H H H H H | || | | | | | | H—C—O—C—C—C—C—C—C—H | | | | | | | H H H H H | Repeat
Saturated fats are solid and can clog the blood vessels. The carbon atoms contain how many bonds? Just one. Single bonds, which means that there’s the maximum amount of hydrogen.
Unsaturated fats come from plants, not animals. How many bonds between the carbon atoms? Two. Double bonds, meaning not saturated with hydrogen. If there’s just one double bond, what is the unsaturated fat called? Monounsaturated. For more than one double bond, it’s polyunsaturated.
The fatty acids of phospholipids are bonded to which carbons of a glycerol molecule? Carbons 1 and 2. A phosphate group is bonded to which carbon? Carbon 3 of the glycerol molecule.
In the phospholipid bilayer, which part is hydrophobic? The lipid, on the inside. That makes the phosphate what? Hydrophilic.
In glycolipids, or sugar lipids, one glycerol is bonded to two fatty acids on carbons 1 and 2. What’s bonded to carbon 3? A carbohydrate chain. What are glycolipids components of in the cell? Cell membranes.
True or false. Lipids are a more concentrated fuel than carbohydrates. True. Why? What do they contain more or less of? More carbon and less oxygen, so more of the molecule can be burned.
Which fat soluble vitamins do fats carry? Vitamins, A, D, E, and K. Why do some foods taste better with fat? Many flavours and aromas are fat soluble.
What happens when triglyceride is broken down? One something and three something else's. One glycerol and three fatty acids. In other words, two glycerols make what? One glucose.
True or false. Large fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose. True. Instead they’re broken down by cellular respiration and converted into energy. What do fats function as? Insulators and cushions. Trans fats are bad because they’re very stable due to the kink in the double bond being removed.
🛑🛑 This resembles what? 🛑🛑 Cholesterol. True or false. Cholesterol is not essential to life. False. And its found in the phospholipid bilayer, bile, and as insulation for nerve fibres.
What are two ways to get cholesterol? Through food, especially saturated (animal) fats as well as in the body, manufactured by what? Liver.
Are LDL (low density lipoproteins) good or bad? Why? LDL are bad because they cause the blockage of arteries. How about HDL (high density lipoproteins?) HDL are good because they carry exec cholesterol to the liver where it can be excreted.
What do chains of amino acids make? Proteins. What’s the name of the bond that links amino acids together? A peptide bond.
To make proteins for humans, how many different amino acids can be linked together? Twenty. How many amino acids can the body not produce? Nine.
What’s the name for two amino acids bonded together? A dipeptide. For more than two? A polypeptide.
True or false. The root group is the same for each of the twenty amino acids. False. For each amino acid, the root group is different. What other two groups make up an amino acid? An amino group and an acid group, which are common to all amino acids.
H H O | | || H—N—C—C—OH | R Which side is the acid group, and what’s it called? The carboxyl is acid group is on the right. How can an amino acid's structure be easily recognized? Which element? The nitrogen from the amino group.
True or false. Protein synthesis, the formation of a peptide bond, is an example of dehydration synthesis. True. A water molecule is released through protein synthesis. The OH from one of the amino acids is removed and the what is removed from the other? An H.
What is the denaturation of proteins? It’s the process in which proteins lose their 3-D shape, AKA coagulation. What are three circumstances/reasons for denaturation? Heat, alcohol, and pH changes.
When excess protein cannot be stored but can be used as fuel, what’s it called? Deamination. In the liver, the amine group is removed and the protein turns to urea which is then excreted. What happens to the amino acid after that? It’s oxidized to produce energy.
What protein structure is the basic chain of amino acids? The primary structure. What three things about the amino acids does it depend upon? The number, kind, and sequence of the amino acids.
What two things might the secondary structure do in terms of its form? It can coil into a helix or form flattened sheets. By what kind of bonds are these structures held together by? Hydrogen bonds. The helix is alpha and the sheets are beta.
What about globular proteins, like enzymes, antibodies, and receptors? These are all what kind of structure? Tertiary structure. What do the R groups in the amino acids do? They interfere with the smooth formation of the secondary structure.
Dimers, which contain two proteins, are which type of structure? Quaternary structure. Insulin and hemoglobin are examples of instances when how many polypeptide chains are bonded together? Two or more.
Which protein structure resembles four bunched up snakes? Quaternary. Which structure could be a bunch of flat snakes piled up or one coiled snake? Secondary. Tertiary is one jumbled up snake, and primary is a normal snake.
What do proteins maintain the correct amounts of in your body? Salt and fluids, as well as a pH of 7.2 and regular bodily conditions (hormones.) What do proteins do for your tissue and muscle? Allows for growth, maintenance, and motion. Also, there are antibodies which attach to Invisalign proteins to wipe them out.
What type of molecules are nucleic acids? The ones involved in heredity. What do they direct? Protein synthesis.
What is DNA made up of? Repeating parts called nucleotides. What three chemical groups are these nucleotides made of? Phosphate, deoxyribose (a 5 carbon sugar,) and a nitrogen base.
What are the four types of nitrogen bases? Adenine (A,) cytosine (C,) guanine (G,) and thymine (T.) How do they go together as complementary base pairs? A and T, C and G. They’re held together by a weak hydrogen bond.
Which of the nitrogen bases are considered purines? Why? It’s adenine and guanine due to their double ring structures. Which nitrogen bases are considered pyrimidines? Why? It’s cytosine and thymine due to their single rings.
What’s RNA, or ribonucleic acid? It’s like DNA but a single helix. What is the sugar and what replaces thymine? The sugar is ribose and the nitrogenous base thymine is replaced by uracil. RNA is the blueprint that ribosomes use for protein production. It can leave the nucleus.
What two processes use water? Hydrolysis (splitting a molecule by adding water) and dehydration synthesis (joining two molecules by removing water.) Water participates in many chemical reactions and is known as a universal what? Solvant.
True or false. Vitamins are inorganic and required in large amounts. False. Vitamins are organic and required in very small amounts. How many known vitamins are there? More than thirty. All cells require all enzymes; otherwise, processes will be impaired.
Coenzymes make what by combining with inactive proteins? Active enzymes. What’s the difference between enriched and fortified foods? Enriched foods replace nutrients that were lost during processing; fortified foods add nutrients that weren’t originally in the food.
Vitamin A deficiency results in what? Night-blindedness. What about Vitamin B6 and B12? Anemia.
Vitamin C deficiency results in what? Scurvy (gum bleeding.) What about Vitamin D, the happy vitamin? Rickets, osteomalacia, weight loss, fatigue, SAD disorder, immune system problems, sleep/wake cycle.
How many minerals do humans need, and are minerals organic? Miners are inorganic and we need twenty. They’re present in how many body cells? All of them.
Why do we need calcium? For bones, teeth, nerves, muscles, and blood clotting. What about phosphorus? Needed to make proteins, for DNA and RNA, cell membranes, and ATP.
Why do we need potassium? For blood clotting and nerve impulses. What about sodium? For never impulse and water balance.
Why do we need iron? For hemoglobin, so as to not become anemic. What about iodine? For the thyroid gland.
Created by: crnbear
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