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Biology chapt 9

Biology chapter 9

TermDefinition
cell cycle An ordered sequence of events in eukaryotes that involves cell growth and nuclear division; consists of the stages Gp, S, G2, and M.
interphase Stages of the cell cycle (Gp S, G2) during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing.
chromatid Following replication, a chromosome consists of a pair of sister chromatids, held together at the centromere; each chromatid is comprised of a single DNA helix.
sister chromatid One of two genetically identical chromosomal units that are the result of DNA replication and are attached to each other at the centromere.
mitosis The stage of cellular reproduction in which nuclear division occurs; process in which a parent nucleus produces two daughter nuclei, each having the same number and kinds of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm following mitosis or meiosis.
mitotic spindle A complex of microtubules and associated proteins that assist in separating the chromatids during cell division.
signal Molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event in the cell.
growth factor A hormone or chemical, secreted by one cell, that may stimulate or inhibit growth of another cell or cells.
apoptosis Programmed cell death; involves a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell.
somatic cell Body cell; excludes cells that undergo meiosis and become sperm or eggs.
cyclin Protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle progresses; combines with and activates the kinases that promote the events of the cycle.
euchromatin Chromatin with a lower level of compaction and therefore accessible for transcription.
heterochromatin Highly compacted chromatin that is not accessible for transcription.
diploid (2n) Cell condition in which two of each type of chromosome are present.
haploid (n) Cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present.
centromere Constriction where sister chromatids of a chromosome are held together.
kinetochore An assembly of proteins that attaches to the centromere of a chromosome during mitosis.
centrosome Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles.
centriole Cell structure, existing in pairs, that occurs in the centrosome and may help organize a mitotic spindle for chromosome movement during animal cell division.
prophase First phase of mitosis; characterized by the condensation of the chromatin; chromosomes are visible, but scattered in the nucleus.
prometaphase Second phase of mitosis; chromosomes are condensed but not fully aligned at the metaphase plate.
metaphase Third phase of mitosis; chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate.
anaphase Fourth phase of mitosis; chromosomes move toward the poles of the spindle.
telophase Final phase of mitosis; daughter cells are located at each pole.
cleavage furrow Indentation in the plasma membrane of animal cells during cell division; formation marks the start of cytokinesis.
cell plate Structure across a dividing plant cell that signals the location of new plasma membranes and cell walls.
therapeutic cloning Used to create mature cells of various cell types. Facilitates study of specialization of cells and provides cells and tissue to treat human illnesses.
reproductive cloning Used to create an organism that is genetically identical to the original individual.
cancer Malignant tumor whose nondifferentiated cells exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled growth, and the ability to invade tissue and metastasize.
benign Mass of cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division but has remained at the site of origin.
malignant The power to threaten life; cancerous.
tumor Cells derived from a single mutated cell that has repeatedly undergone cell division; benign tumors remain at the site of origin, while malignant tumors metastasize.
metastasis Spread of cancer from the place of origin throughout the body; caused by the ability of cancer cells to migrate and invade tissues.
angiogenesis Formation of new blood vessels; rapid angiogenesis is a characteristic of cancer cells.
proto-oncogene Gene that promotes the cell cycle and prevents apoptosis; may become an oncogene through mutation.
tumor suppressor gene Gene that codes for a protein that ordinarily suppresses the cell cycle; inactivity due to a mutation can lead to a tumor.
oncogene Cancer-causing gene formed by a mutation in a proto-oncogene; codes for proteins that stimulate the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis.
telomere Tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with each cell division and may thereby regulate the number of times a cell can divide.
asexual reproduction Reproduction that requires only one parent and does not involve gametes.
nucleoid Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it is not bound by a nuclear envelope.
binary fission Splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells; serves as an asexual form of reproduction in bacteria.
Created by: Haleyannestes