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Advanced Biology 17

Transcription/Translation

TermDefinition
Transcription The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
mRNA A type of RNA, synthesized using a DNA template, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Translation The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule.
Ribosome A complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of a large and a small subunit.
Codon A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
RNA Polymerase An enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription, based on complementary binding to nucleotides on a DNA template strand.
Promoter A specific nucleotide sequence in the DNA of a gene that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place.
Terminator In bacteria, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene and signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and detach from the DNA.
Transcription Unit A region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.
TATA Box A DNA sequence in eukaryotic promoters crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
Introns A non-coding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing.
Exons A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing.
tRNA An RNA molecule that functions as a translator between nucleic acid and protein languages by carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome, where they recognize the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
rRNA RNA molecules that, together with proteins, make up ribosomes; the most abundant type of RNA.
Mutation A change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism’s DNA or in the DNA or RNA of a virus.
Mutagen A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and can cause a mutation.
Created by: Mr.Devine