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Cells and Heredity-The Science of Heredity: Chapter 3 Lesson 1-4 Vocabulary

Heredity The passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring.
Trait Each specific character, such as stem height or seed color.
Genetics The scientific study of heredity.
Fertilization A new organism begins to form when egg and sperm cells join.
Purebred The offspring of many generations that have the same form of a trait.
Gene Describe the factors that control a trait.
Alleles The different forms of a gene.
Dominant Allele One whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.
Recessive Allele Hidden whenever the dominant allele is present.
Hybrid Has two different alleles for a trait.
Probability A number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur.
Punnett Square A chart that shows all the possible ways alleles can combine in a genetic cross.
Phenotype The physical appearance, or visible traits.
Genotype Genetic makeup, or alleles.
Homozygous An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait.
Heterozygous An organism that has two different alleles for a trait.
Incomplete Dominance Occurs when one allele is only partially dominant.
Codominance Occurs when both alleles for a gene are expressed equally.
Multiple Alleles Three or or possible alleles determine the trait.
Polygenic Inheritance Occurs when more than one gene affects a trait.