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Bio 160

"Dr. Gober" Bio 160, Ch 1- 7

what are the active tissue found in bone? Cartilage, Blood, Nervous Tissue
What is the shaft of the long bone? Diaphysis
What part of the bone do tendons and liagments attach to? Periosteum
Bone that consists mainly of tightly packed tissue is called_____ compact bone
bone that consists of numerous branching bony plates by irregualr spaces is called____ spongy bone
The medullary cavity of a long bone is filled with marrow
Bones that develop from layers of membranous connective tissue are called____ intramembranous
an example of a sesmoid bone is _____ patella
bones that develop from masses of hyaline cartilage are called endochondral bones
The band of cartilage between the primary and secondary ossification centers in the long bone is called the ________ epiphyseal plate
the cells that form new bone are ________; the cells the break down bone are ______________ osteocytes, osetoclasts
once bone formation is complete, the bone _________throughout life is remodeled
when a bone is fractured, a hematoma is formed by blood escaping from the periosteum and blood vessesl within the bone
What are the major factors that influence bone growth and development nutrution, hormonal secertions, physical exercise
The gap between broken ends of a fractured bone is filled by a ____ cartilaginous callus
To accomplish movement, bones and muscles function together to act as ____ levers
What bones contain red marrow for blood cell formation in a healthy adult pelvis, ribs
what substances are found in blood? Potassiumm, calcium, magnesium
Calcium is important in___ muscle contraction and nerve impluse conduction
What are the 4 major parts of the Axial skeleton skull, hyoid bone, vertbral column, thoracic cage
what are the 4 major parts of the appendicular skeleton pectoral girdle, upper legs, pelvic gridle, lower limbs
The parts of the spinal column in which the vertebrae are fused____ sacrum and coccyx
The only movable bone of the skull is the ___ mandible
The bone that forms the back of the skull and joins the skull along the lambdoid strucure is the ______ occipital bone
The upper jaw is formed by the Maxillary bones
The membranous areas (soft spots) of an infants skull are______ fontanels
What part of the verebral column acts as a shock asborber intervertebtral disks
the functions of the thoracic include? Porduction of blood cells, contribution to breathing, protection of heart and lungs, support the shoulder girdle
which vertebrae support the most weight lumbar
The true ribs articulate with the ______ and the ______ thoracic vertebrae and sternum
The pectoral girdle is made of two _______ and two _______ clavicles and scapulales
The _____ crosses over the ulna when the palm of the hand faces backward radius
The wrist consists of 5 metacarpal bones
When the hands are placed on the hips, they are over the ______ iliac crest
the longest bone in the body is the_______ femur
the lower end of the fibula can be felt as an ankle bone. The correct name is the_____ Lateral malleolus
Synovial membrane is found in_____ freely movable joints
The function of the bursae is to______ facilitatte movement of tendons over bones
The type of joint that permits the widest range of motion is______ ball and socket
Moving the parts at a joint so that the angle between then is increased is called______ extension
The human body is composed of chemicals? True
What is Matter? anything that can take up space
What forms is matter in? Solids, liquids and gases
The subatances that constitute all matter are called_____ elements
What four elements are most plentiful in the human body? oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen
what is an atom made of? nucleus, protons, neutrons and electrons
Neutron no electrical charge
proton positive electrical charge
electron negative electrical charge
The atomic number of an element is determined by the number of ________ protons
When the atoms combine, they gain or lose _____ electrons
The atomic weight of an element is determined by the number of _____ protons and neutrons
An element is inactive if____ the outer shell of its atom has its maxium # of electrons
An ion is? an atom that is electrically charged
An ionic bond is created by a positive and negative ion attracting each other
In forming a covalent bond, electrons are_____ shared by two atoms
Water is formed by molecules of hydrogen and oxygen united by a _____ polar bond
a compund is formed when atoms of ______ elements combine different
C6H12O6 is an example of a molecular formula
Two majors types of chemical reactions are called_____ and _____ synthesis and decompostion
Know the symbol for reversible reaction
An atom or molecule that affects the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction is called a ______ catalysts
As electroyte that relaeases hydrogen ions in water is an acid
Electrolyes that release ions that combine with hydrogen ions are called _____ bases
The pH measures concentration of_____ Hydorgen ion
What is the pH of a nuetral solution? 7
An inorganic substance that relases ions when it reacts with water is water as a electroytes
Examples of inorganic cells water, oxygen
Examples of organic cells carb, glucose, protien, fat
Carbohydrate molecules contains atoms of _______, ________ and _________ Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Fat molecules contain _______ and _______ fatty acids and glycerol
Fats are used in the body primarliy to store ______ enegry
Fats, phospholipids and steroids are important _________ found in the human cell lipids
An enzyme is a _______ that acts as a catalyst protein
In addtion to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, proteins also contain atoms of ________ nitrogen
What characteristic of protein determines its function? conformation
The two types of nuclear acids are ______ and _____ RNA and DNA
The function of nucleic acids is to______ store information and control life process
Study of the human body first began with early humans because ______ of their concern with illness and injury
What factors sets the stage for early knowledge of the human body? the growing experience of medicine men as they treated the sick with herbs and potions
The development of modern science began with? the belief that natural processes were caused by forces that could be understood
What languages form the basis of the language of anatomy and physiology? Latin and greek
The branch of science that deals with the structure of the body is? anatomy
The branch of science that studies how body parts function? physiology
The function of a part is __________ related to its structure always
what are the levels of orgnaization of the body in order of increasing complexity, beggining with the atom? Atom, moleclue, cell, tissue, organ, organ system
The sum total of chemical reactions in the body that break substances down and build them up is? metabolism
Homeostasis means? maintenacne of a stable enviroment
Receptors provide information about specific conditions in the internal environment
Effectors Cause responses which alter conditions in the internal evironment
Set point a point which tells a particular value should be
The portion of the body that contains the head, neck and trunk is called the? axis
The arms and legs are called the ? appendicular portion
The major cavities of the axial portion of the body ______________ cavity and the ________ canal, and the ________ cavity and the ________. cranial, vertebral, thoracic and abdominaopelvic.
The inferior boundary of the thoracic cavity is the ? diaphragm
The heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland are located in the ________ which sperates the thoracic cavity into two compartments. mediastimum
The portion of the abdomen surround by the bones of the pelvis? Pelvic cavity
The visceral and perietal pleural membranes secrete a serous fluid into a potential space called the? Pleural cavity
The heart is covered by the _______ Pericardial membranes
What position is standing erect or arms at side? anatomical
Terms of relative position are used to describe the? Location of one body part with respect to another
A sagittal section divides the body into right and left portions
what is the function of the nervous system? Intergration and Coordination
what is the function of the muscular system? Support and movement
what is the function of the circulatory system? processing and transporting
what is the function of the respiratory system? processing and transporting
what is the function of the skeletal system? support and movement
what is the function of the digestive system? processing and transporting
what is the function of the lymphatic system? processing and transporting
what is the function of the endocrine system? integration and coordiation
what is the function of the urinary system? processing and transporting
what is the function of the reproductive system? reproduction
The cells of the human body vary in size and ___________; the function of various cells is made possible by this ____________________ shpae, three dimensional forms
Cells that are thin, flat and tightly bound together usually have a ___________function protective
The two major portions of the cell, each which is surrounded by a membrane, are the ______ and the ________. cytoplam and nucleus
The cell membrane allows some substances to pass through it and excludes others. This is possible because the cell membrane is ____________ selectively permeable
The cell memebrane is composed of a double layer of ? Phospolipid moleclues
The inner layer if the cell membrane composed of the fatty acid portion of lipid molecules is impermeable to molecules that are soluble in _________ water
The organelle that functions as a system of transport for materials from one part of the ctyoplasm to another is the ________ endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes function in the synthesis of protein molecules? t/f True
The Golgi apparatus is involved in the "packaging" of proteins for secretion to the _______ of the cell. outside
The mitochondria function is the release of _____ to the cells. enegry
The enzymes of the lysosome_____ digest bacteria and damaged cells parts
Peroxisomes are abundant in the _____ and the _____ liver and kidneys
Microfilaments are rods of protein involved in cellular______ movement
Which of the following statements about the centerosome are true? a. It is located near the nucleusb. The centrioles of the centerosome functionc.The centerosoem is concerned with the distribution of chromosomes.d.d. allAnswer---d. ALL
Cilia are found on the surface of? epithelial cells
The structures that float in the nucleplasm of the nucleus are the ______ and the _______ nucleolus and chromatin
The differance between active and passive mechanisms of movement through cell membranes is that active mechanisms require______ cellular energy
The process by which nonsoluble material moves through the cell membrane by using a carrier molecule is called ___________________ facilitated diffusion
The process by which water moves across a semipermeable membrane from areas of low concentration of solute to areas of higher concentration is called? osmosis
A hypertonic solution is one that _______ contains a greater concentration of solute than the cell
The process by which molecules are forced through a membrane by pressure that is greater on one side than on the other side is called? filteration
The process tha uses energy to move ions across a concentration gradient from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration is called? Active transport
The process by which cells engulf liquid molecules is called? pinocytosis
A Process that allows cell to take in molecules pf solids is called? phagocytosis
The process the ensures duplication of DNA molecules during cell reproduction is? mitosis
Prohase Chromatin forms chomosomes; nuclear envelope and nucleous break up and disperse
Metaphase chomosomes become arranged midway between centrioles; duplicate parts od chromosomes become seperated
anaphase microtubules shorten; chromosomes are pulled toward centrioles
telophase chormosomes elongat; nuclear membranes form around each chormosome set
How many cells are in the human body? 75 trillion
Do all cells look the same? no, the vary in size and shape
What is the structure of the cell membrane? lipids and proteins with fewer carbs
Which type of lipid makes up the majority of the cell membrane? a bilayer of phospholipid
What is able to easily pass through the cell membrane? Soluble lipids- oxygen and carbon dioxide
What types of molecules are impermeable through the cell membrane? water soluble molecules- amino acids, sugars, proteins, nuleic acids and various ions
What is diffusion? the process by which molecules or ions scatter or spread spontaneously from regions where they are in higher concentrations towards regions wher they are lower.
What is it called when water molcules diffuse from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration? Osmosis
Any solution that has the same osmotic pressure as body fluid is what? Isotonic
Solutions with a higher osmotic pressure than body fluids is what? Hypertonic
Solution which have lower osmotic pressure than body fluids is what? Hypotonic
What happens if a cell is placed in a hypertonic soluiton? they shrink
What happens if a cell is placed into hypotonic solution? they swell
Here in the body does fileration occur? in the kidneys
Cells in tissue are similar? t/f True
The function of epithelial tissue is to? cover body surfaces
what four types of tissue are found in the human body? epithelial, conncetive, muscle, nervous
Which of the following statements about epithelial tissue are true? a. epithelial tissue has no bloodb. epithelial cells reproduce slowlyc.epithelial cells are nourished by substance diffussing from connective tissued. injuries to epithelial tissue heal rapidly as new cell replace damaged cells.Answer: a, c, d
simple sqaumous epitelium air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries
simple cuboidal epitelium linimg of the ducts of the salivary glands
simple columnar epitelium lining of the digestive tract
pseudostratified columnar epitelium lining of the respiratoy passages
startified squamous epitelium epidermis of the skin
The inner lining of the urinary bladder and the passageways of the urninary tract are composed of_____________________ transitional epitelium
A merocrine gland that secretes its product by__________ exocytosis
The function of the connective tissue is: support, porctection and stores fat
Fibroblasts and mast cells found in connective tissue are ___________ cells fixed
The connective tissue cells that produce fibers are? fibroblasts
The major structural protein of the body and of white connective tissue is? collagen
Yellow connective tissue that can be stretched and returned to its shape is? elastic
The most common clels of loose connective tissues are? Fibroblasts
What is adipose tissue and what is the function? A specialized from of loose connective tissue, it occurs around the kidneys, behind the eyeballs and around various joints, it serves as a conserver of body heat and it serves as a storehouse of energy for the body
The cartilage found in the tip of the nose is ? Hyaline cartilage
The type of cartilage in the intervertebral discs is? fiborcartilage
Because of the nature of its blood supply, injured cartilage heals____________ slowly
The most rigid connective tissue is? Bone
The intercellular material of vascular tissue is ? Plasma
The three types of muscle tissue are? skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Coordiation and regualtion of body functions is the function of the _____________ nervous tissue
What are the 4 types of membranes? Serous,mucous,cutaneous, synovial
Serous membranes are located where? in the body cavities that are completely closed to the outside of the body
mucous membranes are located where? in the lining of the cavities and tubes that have openings to the outside of the body
The outer layer of skin is called? epidermis
The inner layer of skin is called? dermis
The masses of connective tissue beneath the inner layer of skin are called? subcutaneous
The outermost layer of the epidermis is? stratum corneum
The pigment that helps protect the deeper layers of the epidermis is? Melanin
Light-complected, fair haired people have __________ numbers of melanocytes than/as dark complected drak-haired people. equal
Blood vessels supplying the skin are located in the ___________ dermis
The subcutaneous layer functions as a __________ heat insulator
Smooth muscle cells that stand hairs on end in response to cold are know as? arrector pili muscle
The glands ususally associated with hair follicles are? sebaceous glands
Nails are produced by epidermal cells that undergo _____________ keratinzation
Where are the eccrine sweat glands most numberous? the forehead, neck and back
The mammary glands of the breast that produce milk are modified ___________ glands sweat
An irregularly shaped lesion with varigated color that develops on sun exposed area is ___________ melanomas
The sweat glands assoicated with regulation of body temperature are the __________ eccrine glands
Which of the following organs produces the most heat? muscles
Sponging the skin with water helps increase the loss of body heat by ________________ evaporation
What are the signs of inflammation? red, pain and swelling
Fibroblasts must migrate into a __________ cut to heal the skin defect. deep
Created by: icesk8ermom



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