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Chapter 5

Medical Terminology

an/o anus
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly / abdomen
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
col/o colon
colon/o colon
dent/i tooth
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestines
esophag/o esophagus
faci/o face
gastr/o stomach
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
hepat/o liver
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
labi/o lip
lapar/o abdomen
lingu/o tongue
mandibul/o lower jaw / mandible
odont/o tooth
or/o mouth
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
pharyng/o throat
proct/o anus / rectum
pylor/o pyloric sphincter
rect/o rectum
sialaden/o salivary gland
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
uvul/o uvula
amyl/o starch
bil/i gall / bile
bilirubin/o bilirubin
chol/e gall / bile
chlorhydr/o hydochloric
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen / animal starch
lip/o fat / lipid
lith/o stone / calculus
prote/o protein
py/o pus
sial/o saliva / salivary
steat/o fat
-ase enzyme
-chezia defecation / elimination of waste
-iasis abnormal condition
-prandial meal
etiology the study of the cause
eti/o cause
idiopathic unknown cause
idi/o unknown
anorexia lack of appetite
-orexia appetite
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
constipation difficulty in passing stools
sign can be measured
symptoms a feeling
diarrhea frequent passage of loose, watery stool
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
eructation gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
flatus gas expelled through the anus
hematochezia passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
jaundice yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of eyes
nausea unpleasant sensation in the stomach with a tendency to vomit
steatorrhea fat in the feces
dental caries tooth decay (cavity)
oral leukoplakia white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
periodontal disease inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth , and surrounding bones
achalasia failure of the lower esophagus sphincter muscle to relax
esophageal varices swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
gastrophageal reflux disease (GERD) solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
hernia protrusion of an organ or part through the tissue and muscles normally containing it
peptic ulcer open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
colonic polyps polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
crohn disease chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
diverticulosis abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall of the colon
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) inflammation of the colon and small intestines
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group of GI symptoms, but without defined abnormalities in the intestines
cholelithiasis gallstones in the gallbladder
cirrhosis chronic degenerative disease of liver
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
biliary (pronounce) BIL
cheilosis (pronounce) LO
choledocholithiasis (pronounce) THI
colostomy (pronounce) LOS
entercolitis (pronounce) LI
glycogenolysis (pronounce) NOL
mesentery (pronounce) MES
palatoplasty (pronounce) PAL
peristalsis (pronounce) STAL
rectum (pronounce) REK
ascites (pronounce) SI
dysentery (pronounce) DIS
oral leukoplakia (pronounce) OR
pancreatitis (pronounce) TI
Created by: smook1103