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MARINE` __________ecosystems are located mainly in coastal areas and in the open ocean.
CHANGES Organisms that live in coastal areas adapt to ____________ in water level and salinity.
ADAPT Organisms that live in the open ocean ________________ to changes in amount of sunlight and nutrients available.
COASTAL __________________and areas that are covered by salt water for all or part of the time are known as coastal wetlands.
WETLANDS Coastal ____________ provide habitat and nesting areas for many fish and wildlife.
FILTER PROTECTS They also absorb excess rain, which protects them from flooding, they _______ out pollutants and sediments, and they proved recreational areas for boating, fishing, and hunting.
ESTUARY An_____________ is an area where fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean.
MINERAL As the two bodies meet, currents form and cause_____________ rich mud with many nutrients to fall to the bottom making in available to producers.
FRESH PROTECTS Estuaries are very productive because they constantly receive________ nutrients from the river and ocean while the surrounding land _____________ the estuaries from the harsh force of ocean waves. Plants and Animals o
LIGHT Estuaries support many marine organisms because they receive plenty of _____________for photosynthesis and plenty of nutrients for plants and animals.
PLANKTON The light and nutrients support large populations of rooted plants as well as ___________. Plankton in turn provide food for fish, which can then be eaten by larger animals such as dolphins, manatees, or otters.
OYSTERS __________ and clams live anchored to rocks and feed by filtering plankton from the water.
TOLERATE Organisms that live in estuaries are able to _________ variations in salinity because the salt content of the water varies as fresh water and sat water mix when tides go in and out.
HARBORS Estuaries also proved protected ___________, access to the ocean, and connection to rivers. As a result, many of the largest ports have been built on estuaries.
SIX __________ of the ten largest urban areas, including New York have been built on estuaries.
WASTE Estuaries that exist in populated areas were often used as places to dump __________. Estuaries filled with waste could then be used as building sites.
DAMAGED The pollutants that __________ estuaries include sewage, pesticides, fertilizers, and toxic chemicals. •
HUMAN Most of these pollutants break down over time, but estuaries cannot cope with the amounts produced by dense___________populations.
SALT MARSHES ___________ ______________ are maritime habitats characterized by grasses, sedges, and other plants that have adapted to continual, periodic flooding and are found primarily throughout the temperate and subarctic regions.
COMMUNITY The salt marsh supports a _________________ of clams, fish, aquatic birds, crabs, and shrimp.
ABSORB Salt marshes, like other wetlands, also _________ pollutants to help protect inland areas.
MANGROVE SWAMPS _______________ _________________ are tropical or subtropical marine swamps that are characterized by the abundance of low to tall mangrove trees.
PROTECT 2000 The swamps help _________ the coastline from erosion and reduce the damage from storms. They also provide a home for about ________ animal species.
DESTROYED Mangrove swamps have been filled with waste and _______ in many parts of the world.
ROCKY ______ shores have many more plants and animals than sandy shores do because the rocks provide anchorage for seaweed that animals can live on.
SANDY ______ shores dry out when the tide goes out. Animals are adapted the effects of drying and exposure at low tide. Birds prod the sand for animals that have not buried themselves deeply enough to escape the tide pull.
BARRIER ISLANDS A ________ __________ is a long ridge of sand or narrow island that lies parallel to the shore and helps protect the mainland
CORAL REEFS __________ _______ are limestone ridges found in tropical climates and composed of coral fragments that are deposited around organic remains.
CRACKS housands of species of plants and animals live in the ______ and crevices of coral reefs, which makes coral reefs among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth.
PREDATORS Corals are ___________ that use stinging tentacles to capture small animals, such as zooplankton, that float or swim close to the reef.
CORALS ___________ live only in clear, warm salt water where there is enough light for photosynthesis
FRAGILE Coral reefs are productive ecosystems, but they are also very _________.
DIE If the water surrounding a reef is too hot or too cold, or if fresh water drains into the water surrounding the coral, the coral may __________.
NUTRIENTS If the water is too muddy, polluted, or too high in __________ the algae that live within the corals will either die or grow out control. If the algae grows out of control, it may kill the corals.
DESTRUCTION Oil spills, sewage, pesticides, and silt runoff have also been linked to coral reef ___________________.
OVER FISHING _______________ can devastate fish populations, upsetting the balance of the reef’s ecosystem.
SLOWLY A coral reef grows very __________, and it may not be able to repair itself after chunks of coral are destroyed by careless divers, ships dropping anchor, fisheries, shipwrecks, and people breaking off pieces for decorative items or building materials.
100 METERS Because water absorbs light, sunlight that is usable by plants for photosynthesis penetrates only about ______(m) meters into the ocean.
SHALLOW As a result, much of the ocean’s life is concentrated in the _________ coastal waters where sunlight penetrates to the bottom and rivers wash nutrients from the land.
SEAWEED ___________ and algae grow anchored to rocks, and phytoplankton drift on the surface. Invertebrates and fish then feed on these plants.
LEAST In the open ocean, phytoplankton grow only in areas where there is enough light and nutrients, resulting in one of the _______ productive of all ecosystems.
SOOPLANKTON The sea’s smallest herbivores are _____________, including jellyfish and tiny shrimp, which live near the surface with the phytoplankton they eat.
WHALES Fish feed on the plankton as do marine mammals such as _________.
FALL The depths of the ocean are very dark, so most food at the ocean floor consists of dead organisms that _____ from the surface.Decomposers, filter feeders, and the organisms that eat them live in the deep areas of the ocean.
SUNLIGHT Overall, the types of organisms that may be found in the layers of the ocean at various depths is dependent on available _____________.
POLLUTED The oceans are steadily becoming more ____________. Runoff from fertilized fields and industrial waste and sewage being discharged into rivers are major sources of ocean pollution.
DESTROYING Overfishing and certain fishing methods are also ________ some fish populations. Marine mammals can get caught and drown in the nets.
FISHING LINES Although it is illegal, some ships discard ____ ______ into the ocean where they can strangle and kill fish and seals.
ARCTIC DIVERSITY The _______ Ocean is rich in nutrients from the surrounding landmasses and supports large populations of plankton, which feed a_________ of fish in the open water and under the ice.
FOOD These fish are food for ocean birds, whales, and seals. The arctic ecosystems at the North and South Poles depend on marine ecosystems because nearly all the__________ comes from the ocean.
POLAR Fish and seals then provide food for _________ bears and people on land.
ANTARCTIC The ________ is the only continent never colonized by humans. It is governed by an international commission and is used mainly for research.
EDGES Even during the summer, only a few plants grow at the _______ of the continent.
PLANKTON So, as in the Arctic, ___________ form the basis of the Antarctic food web, nourishing large numbers of fish, whales, and birds such as penguins.
Created by: asimien907
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