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GI Anatomy

Medical-Surgical Nursing

QuestionAnswer
What forms the common hepatic duct? The left and right hepatics ducts
How does bile leave the liver? Through the common hepatic duct
How long is the GI tract? 30 feet (9 meters)
What are the 4 layers of the GI tract? (From inside out): Mucosa, submucosa, muscular, serosa
What are the 2 networks of the enteric nervous system? Meissner plexus and Auerbach (myenteric) plexus
Which arteries supply the GI system? Celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric
How much cardiac output does the GI system receive when eating? 35%
What is the omentum? A fold that hangs like an apron from the stomach to the intestine and contains fat and lymph nodes
What is the main function of the GI system? To supply nutrients to body cells
Which hormone plays a role in appetite stimulation? Ghrelin
Which hormone is associated with appetite suppression? Leptin
What is deglutition? Swallowing
What is mastication? Chewing
What are the 3 parts of the pharynx? Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
What are the parts of the stomach? Fundus. body, and pylorus
What type of stomach cells secrete pepsinogen? Chief cells
What do the parietal cells of the stomach secrete?
What is the purpose of Brunner's glands in the submucosa of the small intestine? They secrete an alkaline fluid containing bicarbonate
What are the portions of the small intestine? Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
What are the portions of the large intestine? Cecum, colon, rectum, and anus
What is the Valsalva maneuver associated with? Defecation
What enzyme does saliva contain? Amylase
Where does most absorption occur during the digestion? Small intestine
What is the functional unit of the liver? Hepatic lobules
What is the function of Kupffer cells? To carry out phagocytosis in the liver
Where are Kupffer cells located? In the lining of sinusoids, which are specialized hepatic capillaries
Where is bile secreted to from hepatic cells? Canaliculi
What does bile consist of? Water, cholesterol, bile salts, electrolytes, and phospholipids
What is bilirubin? A pigment derived from the breakdown of Hgb
What is the function of the gallbladder? To concentrate and store bile
What makes up the common bile duct? Hepatic and cystic ducts
Where does bile enter the small intestine? Sphincter of Oddi/Ampulla of Vater (same thing, different names)
Where do the pancreatic duct and common bile duct meet? Sphincter of Oddi
What is hypochlohydria? Decrease in HCl acid production
What is the order for the abdominal assessment? Inspection, auscultation, percussion, and palpation
What does borborygmi refer to? Stomach growling
Created by: shrewsburysd